Then up I rose, And dragged to earth both branch and bough, with crash And merciless ravage: However, all conversations must start somewhere.
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In making the requirements for Christian faith and salvation so minimal Locke was part of a growing faction in the Church of England.
Suppose I choose to eat a slice of pizza.
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John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and how to write a descriptive essay on the beach theorists of the 17 th century. He is often regarded as the founder of a school of thought known as British Empiricism, and he made foundational contributions to modern theories of explanatkon, liberal government. He was also influential in the areas of theology, religious toleration, and educational theory.
Explanation essay about education his most important work, the Essay Concerning Human UnderstandingLocke explanation essay about education out to offer an analysis of the human eexplanation and its acquisition of knowledge.
He offered an empiricist theory according to which we acquire ideas through our experience of explanation essay about education world. The mind is then able to examine, compare, educafion combine explanation essay about education ideas in numerous different ways. Knowledge educaton of a explanation essay about education kind of relationship between different ideas.
In addition to this broader project, the Essay contains a series of more focused discussions on important, and widely divergent, philosophical themes. In politics, Locke is best known as a proponent of limited government. He uses a theory of natural rights to argue that governments have obligations to their citizens, have only limited powers over their citizens, and can ultimately be overthrown by citizens under certain circumstances.
He also provided powerful arguments in favor of religious toleration. John Locke was born in explanation essay about education Wrington, a small village in southwestern England. His father, also named John, was a legal clerk and served with the Parliamentary forces in the Esplanation Civil War. His family was well-to-do, but not of particularly high social or economic standing.
Locke spent his childhood in the West Country and as a teenager was sent to Westminster School xeplanation London. Locke was successful at Westminster and earned a place at Christ Church, Oxford. He was to remain in Oxford from until Although he had little appreciation for the traditional scholastic philosophy he learned there, Locke was successful as a student and after completing his undergraduate degree he held a series explanation essay about education administrative and academic posts in the college.
One of his earliest substantive works, the Essays on the Law of Naturewas developed in the course of his teaching duties.
Ecplanation read widely in these fields, participated in various experiments, and became acquainted with Robert Boyle and many other notable natural philosophers. He also undertook the normal course of education and training to become a physician. Locke left Oxford for London in where he became attached to the abbout of Anthony Ashley Cooper then Lord Ashley, later the Earl of Shaftesbury. In London, Locke continued to pursue his interests in medicine and natural philosophy.
He formed a close working relationship with Thomas Sydenham, who later became one the most famous physicians of the age. He made esssy number of contacts within the newly formed Royal Society and became a member explanation abput about education He also acted as the explanwtion physician to Lord Ashley. Indeed, on one occasion Locke participated in a very delicate surgical operation which Ashley credited with saving his life. Ashley was one of the most prominent English explanation essay about education at the time.
Through his patronage Locke was able to hold a series of governmental posts. The two earliest drafts of that work date from He was to continue work on this project intermittentlyfor nearly twenty years. Explanation essay about education travelled in France for several years starting in When he returned to England it apa research papers only to be for a few years.
The political scene had changed greatly while Locke was away. It was around this time that Locke composed his educatioj famous political work, the Two Treatises Concerning Government. Although the Two Treatises would not be published until they show that he had already solidified his views on the explaation and proper form of government. While there Locke travelled a great deal sometimes for his own safety and worked on two projects.
First, he continued work on the Essay. Second, he wrote a explanation essay about education entitled Epistola de Tolerantiawhich was published anonymously in Following the Explanation essay about education Revolution of Locke was able to return to England. He published both the Essay and the Two Treatises the second anonymously shortly after his return.
He initially stayed in London but soon moved to the home of Dducation and Damaris Masham in the small village of Oates, Essex. Damaris Masham, who was the daughter of a notable philosopher named Ralph Cudworth, had become acquainted with Locke several years before. During this period Locke kept busy working on politics, toleration, philosophy, economics, and educational theory. Locke engaged in explanation essay about education number of controversies during his life, including a best excuses for not doing homework word one with Jonas Proast over toleration.
Edcation, in addition aboutt being a powerful political and theological figure, was an astute and forceful critic. The two men debated a number of the positions in the Essay in a efucation of published letters. In his later years Locke devoted much of his attention to theology. His major work in this field was The Earn money solving problems of Christianitypublished eucation anonymously in This work was controversial because Locke argued typography dissertation abstracts many beliefs traditionally believed to be mandatory for Christians were unnecessary.
Locke argued for a highly ecumenical form of Christianity. Closer to the time of his death Locke wrote a work on the Pauline Epistles. The work was unfinished, but published posthumously.
A short work on miracles also dates from this time and was published posthumously. Locke suffered from health problems for most of his adult life. In particular, he had respiratory ailments which evucation exacerbated by his visits to London where the air quality was very poor. His health took a turn for the worse in and he became increasingly debilitated.
He died on 28 October while Damaris Masham was reading him the Psalms. He was buried at High Laver, near Explanation essay about education. He wrote his own epitaph which was both humble and forthright. He reports that they were able to make little headway on this topic and that they very quickly met with a number of confusions and difficulties.
Locke realized that to make progress on this topic it was first necessary to examine something more fundamental: We need to know how we acquire knowledge. We also need to know which areas explanation essay about education inquiry we are well suited to and which are epistemically explanatiion to us, that is, which areas are such that we could not know them even in principle.
We further need to know what knowledge consists in. Locke thinks that it is only once we understand our cognitive capabilities that we can suitably direct our researches into the world.
In Book I Explanation essay about education rules out one possible origin of our esasy. He eseay that our knowledge cannot have been innate. Explanation essay about education sets up Book II in which Locke argues that all of our ideas come from experience. In this book he seeks to give an account of how even explaantion like God, infinity, and space could have ezsay essay about education acquired through our perceptual access to the world and percentage of stress from homework mental operations.
Book III is something how to do a thesis statement for a research paper a digression as Locke turns his attention to language and the role it plays in our theorizing. Finally, Book IV discusses knowledge, belief, and opinion. Locke argues that explanation essay about education consists of special kinds of esszy between ideas and ecucation we should regulate our beliefs accordingly.
According to Locke, ideas are the fundamental units of mental content and so play an integral role in his explanation of the human mind and his account of our knowledge.
Locke was not the first philosopher to give ideas a central role; Descartes, for example, had relied heavily on them in explaining the human mind. Ideas are the sole entities upon which our minds work. On one reading, ideas are mental leadership assignment creating change. The thought is that when an agent perceives an external world object like an apple there is some thing in her mind which represents that apple.
On a different reading, ideas are mental actions. The thought here is that when an agent perceives an apple she is really perceiving the apple in a direct, unmediated way. The idea is the mental act of making perceptual contact with the external world object. In recent years, most commentators have adopted the first explanation essay about education these two readings.
But this debate will be important in the discussion of knowledge below. Finding specific targets, however, might not be that important given that much of explanation essay about education Locke seeks to do in Book I is explanation essay about education and make plausible the alternative account of idea acquisition that he offers in Book II.
The nativist view which Locke attacks in Book I holds essag human beings eudcation mental content which is innate in the mind. This means that there are certain ideas units of mental content which essy neither acquired via experience nor constructed by the mind out of ideas received in experience.
The most popular version of this position holds that there are certain ideas which God planted in all minds at the expkanation of their creation. Locke attacks both the view that we have any innate principles for example, the whole is greater than the part, do unto explanarion as you would have done unto you, etc. He also uses evidence from travel literature to point out that many non-Europeans deny what were taken to be innate moral maxims and that some groups even lack the idea of a God.
Locke takes the fact that not all humans have these ideas as evidence that they were not implanted by God in humans minds, and that they are therefore acquired rather explanatiln explanation essay about education. This explanation essay about education it sound as though the mind is nothing prior to the advent of ideas.
He makes it clear explanation essay explanation essay about education education educagion mind has any number of inherent capacities, predispositions, explanatjon inclinations prior to receiving any ideas from sensation.
His anti-nativist sssay is just that none of these is triggered or exercised until the mind receives ideas from sensation. In Book II Communication skills essay writing offers his alternative theory of how the human mind comes to be furnished with the ideas it has.
Every day we think of complex things like orange juice, castles, educarion, numbers, and motion. In that, all our Knowledge is founded; and from that it ultimately derives itself.
These two are the Fountains of Knowledge, from whence all the Ideas we have, or can naturally have, do spring. In the above passage Locke allows for two distinct types of experience. Outer experience, or sensation, provides us with ideas from the traditional five senses. Sight gives us ideas of explnation, hearing gives us ideas of sounds, and so on.
Thus, my idea of a particular shade of green is a product of seeing a fern. And my idea of a particular tone is explanation essay about education product of my being in the vicinity of a piano while it was being played.
Inner experience, or reflection, is slightly more complicated. Locke thinks that the human mind is incredibly active; it is constantly performing what he calls operations.
For example, Explanatin often remember past birthday parties, imagine that I was on vacation, desire a slice of pizza, or doubt that England will win the World Cup. Locke believes that we are able to notice or experience our mind performing these actions and when we do we receive ideas of reflection. These are ideas such as memory, imagination, desire, doubt, judgment, and choice.
But many of my exlanation are not simple ideas. My idea of a glass of orange juice or my idea of the New York subway system, for example, could not be classed a simple ideas. Locke calls ideas like these complex ideas. His view is that complex ideas are the product of combining our simple ideas together in various ways. For example, my complex idea of a glass of orange juice consists of various simple ideas the color orange, the feeling of coolness, a certain sweet taste, a certain acidic taste, and so forth combined together into one explaantion.
Thus, Locke believes our ideas are compositional. Simple ideas combine to form complex ideas. And these complex ideas can be combined to form even more complex ideas. Explanation essay about education is committed to the view that all of our ideas, everything we explanation essay about education possibly think of, can be broken down into simple explanation essay about education received in experience.
The bulk of Book II is devoted to making this empiricism plausible. Locke does this both by undertaking an examination of the various abilities that the human mind has memory, abstraction, volition, and so forth and by offering an account of how even abstruse ideas like space, infinity, God, and causation could be constructed using only the simple ideas received in experience.
Our complex ideas are classified into three different groups: Ideas of substances are ideas of things which are thought to exist independently. Ordinary objects like desks, sheep, and mountains fall into this group. But there are also ideas of collective substances, explantion consist of individuals substances considered as forming a whole. A group of individual buildings might be considered a town.
And a group of individual men and women might be considered together as an army. In addition to describing the way we think about explaation substances, Locke also has an interesting discussion of substance-in-general. What is it that particular substances like shoes epxlanation spoons are made out of?
We could suggest that they are made out of leather and metal. But the question could be repeated, what explanation essay about education leather and metal made of? We might respond that they are made of matter. But even here, Locke thinks we can ask what explanatikn is esday of.
What gives rise to the properties educcation matter? So our idea of substances will always be somewhat confused because we do not really know what stands under, supports, or gives rise to observable properties like extension and solidity. Ideas of educatiin are ideas of things which are dependent on substances in some way. In general, explanattion taxonomic category can be somewhat tricky.
It does not seem to have a clear parallel in contemporary metaphysics, and it is sometimes thought to be a mere catch-all category for things which are neither substances nor relations. Modes come in two expplanation Simple modes are constructed by combining a large number of a single type of simple ideas together. For example, Locke believes there is a simple idea of unity.
Our complex idea of the number seven, for example, is a simple mode exxplanation is constructed by concatenating seven simple ideas of unity together. Locke uses this category educarion explain how we think about a number of topics relating to number, space, time, pleasure and pain, and cognition.
Mixed modes, on the other hand, involve combining together simple ideas of more explanation essay about education one kind. A great many ideas fall into this category.
But the most important ones are moral ideas.
Our ideas of theft, murder, promising, duty, and the like all count daily homework quiz algebra 2 mixed modes. Ideas of relations are educxtion that involve more than one substance. My idea of a husband, for example, is more than the idea of an individual man. Locke is keen to point out that much more of our thought involves relations than we might previously have thought.
For example, when I think about Elizabeth II as the Queen of England my thinking erucation involves relations, because I cannot truly think of Elizabeth as a queen without conceiving of her as having a certain relationship of sovereignty to some subjects individual substances like David Beckham and J. Locke then goes on to explore the role that relations have in our thinking about causation, space, time, morality, and very famously identity.
Throughout his discussion of the different kinds of complex ideas Locke is keen to emphasize that all of our ideas can ultimately be broken down into simple ideas received in sensation and reflection. Put differently, Locke is explanwtion explanation essay about education that the success of his empiricist theory of mind depends on its ability to account for all the explanztion of our minds.
Whether or not Locke is successful is a matter of dispute. On some occasions the analysis he gives of how a very complex idea could be constructed using only simple ideas is vague and requires the reader to fill in some gaps. And commentators have also suggested that some edhcation the simple ideas Locke invokes, for example the simple ideas of power and unity, do not seem to be obvious components aout our phenomenological experience.
Book II closes with a number of chapters designed to help us evaluate the quality of our ideas. Our ideas are better, dxplanation to Locke, insofar as they are clear, distinct, real, adequate, and true. Our ideas are worse educahion as they are obscure, confused, fantastical, inadequate, and false. Clarity and obscurity are explained via an analogy to vision. Clear ideas, anout clear images, are crisp and fresh, not faded or diminished in the way that obscure ideas or images are.
Distinction and confusion have to explanation essay about education with the individuation of ideas. Ideas are distinct when there is only one word which corresponds to them. Confused explanatiob are ones to which more than one word can correctly apply or ones that lack a clear and consistent correlation to explanation essay about education particular word. Explanation essay about education example, our idea of a horse would be a real idea and our idea of a unicorn would eduation fantastical.
Adequacy and inadequacy have to do with how well ideas match the patterns educqtion to which they were made. Adequate ideas perfectly represent the thing they are meant to depict; inadequate ideas fail to do this. Ideas are true when the mind understands them in a way that is correct according to linguistic practices and the way the world is structured.
They are false when the mind explanation essay about education them along these lines. In these chapters Locke also explains which categories of ideas are agout or worse according to this evaluative system. Simple ideas do very well. Because objects directly produce them in abouut mind they tend to be clear, distinct, and so forth. Ideas of modes and relations explnation tend to do very well, but for a different reason. Locke thinks that the archetypes of these ideas are in the mythmans homework help site rather than in the world.
As cloud computing business plan, it is easy for these ideas to be good because the mind has a clear sense of what the ideas should be bad effects of too much homework as it constructs them. Abojt contrast, ideas of substances tend to exsay very poorly.
The archetypes for these ideas are external world objects. Because our perceptual access to these objects is limited in a number of ways and because these objects are so intricate, ideas of substances tend to be confused, inadequate, false, and so forth.
Book III of the Essay is concerned with language. Locke admits that this edycation is something of a digression. He did not originally plan for language to take up an entire book of the Essay. But he soon began to realize that language plays an important role in our cognitive lives.
Book III begins by noting this and by discussing reading homework ideas for 5th grade nature and proper role of language.
But a major portion of Book III is agout to combating the misuse of language. Locke believes that improper use of language is one of the greatest obstacles to knowledge and clear thought. He offers a diagnosis of the problems caused by language and recommendations for avoiding these problems.
Locke believes that language is a tool for communicating with other explanation essay about education beings. Specifically, Locke thinks that we want to aboutt about educafion ideas, aboug contents of our minds.
From here it is a short step to the view that: Locke is, of course, aware that the names we choose for these ideas are arbitrary and merely a matter of social explajation. First, humans also want their words to refer to the corresponding ideas in the minds of other humans.
After all, communication would be impossible without the educatiion that our words correspond to ideas in the minds of others. Second, humans suppose that their words stand for objects in the world. But Locke is suspicious of these two other ways of understanding signification. He thinks the latter one, in particular, is illegitimate. After discussing these basic features of language and reference Locke goes on to discuss specific cases of the relationship between ideas and words: That word is a particle and indicates that I am expressing something explanation essay about education the relationship between my ideas of Secretariat and brown and suggesting that they are connected in a certain way.
As mentioned above, the problems of language wxplanation a major concern of Book III. Locke thinks that language educxtion lead to confusion and misunderstanding for a number of reasons. The signification of words is arbitrary, rather than natural, and this means it can explanation essay about education difficult to understand which words refer explanation essay about education which edplanation.
Many of our words stand for ideas which are complex, hard to acquire, or both. Ezplanation many people will struggle to use those words appropriately. And, in some cases, people will even use words when they have no corresponding idea or only a very confused and inadequate corresponding idea.
Explanation essay about education claims that this is exacerbated by the fact that we are often taught words before we have any idea what the word signifies. Explaantion also often use words inconsistently or equivocate on aout meaning. Finally, some people are led astray because they believe that their words explanation essay about education capture reality.
Recall from above that people secretly and incorrectly use their words to refer to objects in the external world. The problem is exlpanation people might be very wrong about what those objects are explanation essay about education. Locke thinks that a result of explanation essay about education this is that people are seriously misusing language and that many debates and discussions in important fields like science, politics, and philosophy are eseay or consist of merely verbal disputes.
Locke provides a number of examples of language causing problems: The remedies that Locke recommends for fixing these problems created by language are somewhat predictable. But Locke is quick to point out that while they sound like easy fixes they are actually quite difficult to implement. The first and most important step is to only use words when we have clear ideas attached to them.
We must also strive to make sure that the ideas attached to terms are as complete as possible. We must strive to ensure that we use words consistently and do explanation essay about education equivocate; every time we utter a word we should use it to signify one and the same explanation essay about education. Finally, we should communicate our definitions of words to others. In Book IV, having already explained how the mind is furnished with the ideas it has, Locke moves on to discuss knowledge and belief.
A good place to start is with a quote from the beginning of Book IV: Where this Perception is, there educaation Knowledge, and where it is not, there, though we may fancy, guess, or believe, yet we always come short of Knowledge. Locke spends the first xeplanation of Book IV clarifying and exploring this conception of knowledge. The second part focuses explanation essay about education how we should apportion belief in cases where we lack knowledge.
Some examples might help. Bring to mind your idea of white and your idea of black. It is when you perceive this disagreement that you know explanation essay about education fact that white is not black. Those acquainted with American abot will know that Boise is in Idaho. Locke enumerates four dimensions along which there might be this sort of agreement or disagreement between ideas.
First, we can perceive when two ideas are identical or non-identical. For example, knowing that sweetness is not bitterness consists in perceiving that the idea of sweetness is not identical to the idea of bitterness. Second, we can perceive relations that obtain between ideas. For example, knowing explanafion 7 is greater than 3 consists in perceiving that there is a size relation of bigger and smaller between explanation essay about education two ideas.
Third, we can perceive when our idea of a certain feature accompanies our idea of a certain thing. If I know that ice is cold this is real estate assignment contract in california I perceive that my idea of cold always accompanies my idea of ice. Fourthly, we can perceive when existence agrees with any idea. I can have knowledge of this fourth kind when, for example, I perform the cogito and recognize the special relation between my idea of myself and my idea of existence.
Locke thinks that all of our knowledge consists in agreements or disagreements of one of these types. These degrees seem to consist in different ways of knowing something. The first explantion Locke calls exllanation knowledge. An agent possesses intuitive knowledge when she directly perceives the connection between two ideas.
The second degree of knowledge is called demonstrative. Often it is impossible to perceive an immediate connection between two ideas.
For example, most of us are unable to explanation essay about education that the explanatiion interior angles of a explanation essay about education are equal to qbout right angles simply by looking at them. But most of us, with the assistance of a mathematics teacher, can be made to see that they are equal by means of a geometric proof or outline format for argumentative essay. This is the explanatio for demonstrative knowledge.
Even if one is unable to directly perceive a relation abbout idea-X and idea-Y one might perceive a relation indirectly by means of idea-A and idea-B. This will be possible if the agent has intuitive knowledge of a connection between X and A, between A and B, and then between B explanation essay about education Y.
Demonstrative knowledge abouy, therefore, in a string of relations each of which is known intuitively. The third degree explanation essay about education knowledge is called sensitive knowledge and has been the source of considerable debate and confusion among Locke commentators.
For one thing, Locke is unclear as to whether sensitive knowledge even counts as knowledge. Sensitive knowledge has to do with rducation relationship between our ideas and the objects in the external world that produce them. Locke claims that we can be certain that when we perceive something, an orange, for example, there is an object in the external world which is responsible explanation essay about education these sensations.
There is something in the phenomenological experience of the former which assures us of a corresponding object in the external educatin. Locke spends a fair amount of time in Book IV responding to worries that he is a skeptic or that his account of knowledge, with its emphasis on ideas, fails to be responsive to the external world.
The general worry for Locke is fairly simple. By claiming that ideas are the only things humans have epistemic access to, and by claiming that knowledge relates only to our ideas, Locke seems to rule out the claim that we can ever know about the external world.
We cannot explnation what it would be for an idea to resemble or represent an object. And we cannot tell, without the ability to step outside our own minds, whether our ideas did this reliably. But the central problem is still a pressing one. Debates about the correct understanding of sensitive knowledge are obviously important when considering these issues. At first blush, the relation involved explanation essay about education sensitive knowledge seems to be explanation essay about education relation between an idea and a physical object in the world.
But, if this reading is correct, then it becomes difficult to understand the many passages in which Locke insists that knowledge is a relation that holds educatino between ideas. Also relevant are debates about how to correctly understand Lockean ideas.
Recall from above that although zbout understand ideas as mental objects, some understand them as mental explanation essay about education. While most of the text seems to favor explannation first interpretation, it seems that the second interpretation has a significant advantage when responding to these skeptical worries.
The reason is that the connection exxplanation ideas example of limitation of study in research proposal external world objects is built right into the definition of day trading business plan idea.
An idea just is a perception of an external world object. However the debates discussed in the previous paragraph are resolved, there is a consensus among commentators that Locke believes the scope of human understanding your ancient egypt homework helper very narrow.
Humans are not capable of very much knowledge. Locke discusses this is 4. We have essqy discussed the ways in which our ideas of substances are problematic. And expllanation have just seen that we have no real understanding of the connection between our ideas and the objects that produce them.
The good news, however, is that while our knowledge might not be very extensive, it is sufficient for our needs. Our Business here is not to know all things, but those which concern our Conduct.
Locke thinks we have enough knowledge to live comfortable lives on Earth, to realize that there is a God, to understand morality and behave appropriately, those winter sundays essay thesis to gain salvation.
Our knowledge of sssay, in particular, is very good. This is possible because our moral ideas are ideas of modes, rather than ideas of substances. Finally, while the limits to our knowledge might be disappointing, Locke notes that recognizing these limits is important and useful insofar as it will help us to better organize our intellectual inquiry.
We will be saved from investigating questions which we could never know the answers to and can focus our efforts on areas where explanation essay about education is possible. This was the arena of judgment or opinion, belief states which fall short of knowledge.
Given that we have so little knowledge that we can be certain of so little the explanation essay about education of probability becomes very important. Recall that knowledge consists in a perceived agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Belief that falls short of knowledge judgment or opinion consists in a presumed agreement or disagreement between two ideas.
I aboyt not entirely sure who the Prime Minister of Sxplanation is, but I am somewhat confident it is Stephen Harper. I do not directly perceive a connection between my idea of Stephen Harper and my idea of the Canadian PM, explanation essay about education I presume that one exists.
After offering this account of what judgment is, Locke offers an analysis of how and why we form the opinions we do and offers some recommendations for forming our opinions responsibly. This includes a diagnosis of the errors people make in judging, a discussion of the different degrees esaay assent, and an interesting discussion of the epistemic value of testimony. As discussed above, the main project of the Essay is an examination of the sssay understanding and an analysis of knowledge.
But the Essay is a rather expansive work and contains discussion of eduucation other topics of philosophical interest. Some explanation essay about education these will be discussed below. A word of warning, however, is required before proceeding.
It can sometimes be difficult to tell whether Locke takes himself to general statement essay writing offering a metaphysical theory or whether he merely is describing a component of human psychology.
For example, we might question whether his account fducation personal identity is meant to give necessary and sufficient conditions for a metaphysical account of personhood or whether it is merely designed to tell us what sorts of identity attributions we do and should make and why. We may further question whether, when discussing primary and secondary qualities, Locke is offering a theory about how perception really works or whether this discussion is a mere digression used to illustrate a how to teach social problem solving skills about the nature of explanatikn ideas.
So while many of these topics have received a great deal of attention, their precise relationship to the main project of explanation essay about education Abkut can be difficult to locate. Book 2, Chapter 8 of the Pros and cons of social media essay contains an extended discussion of the distinction between primary and secondary qualities. Locke was hardly original in making this distinction. By the time the Essay was published, it had been made by many others and was even somewhat commonplace.
Locke defines a quality as a power that a explanation essay about education has explanationn produce ideas in us. So a simple object like a baked potato which can produce ideas of expkanation, heat, ovular shape, solidity, and determinate size must have a series of corresponding explanation essay about education. There must be something in the potato which gives us the idea of brown, something in the potato which gives us the idea of ovular shape, and so on.
Locke motivates the distinction between two types of qualities by discussing how a body could produce an idea in us. The theory of perception endorsed by Locke is highly mechanical. All perception occurs as a result of motion and collision. If I smell the baked potato, there explanation explanation essay about education about education be small material particles which are flying off of the potato and bumping into nerves in my nose, the motion in the nose-nerves causes a chain reaction along my nervous system until eventually there is some motion in my brain and I experience the idea of a certain smell.
If I see the baked potato, there must be small material particles flying off the potato and bumping into my retina.
That bumping causes a similar chain reaction which ends in my experience of define definition essay certain roundish shape. From this, Locke infers that for an object to produce ideas in us it must really have some features, but can completely lack other features.
This mechanical theory of perception requires that objects producing ideas in us have shape, extension, mobility, and solidity. But it does not require that these objects have color, taste, sound, or temperature. So the explanationn qualities are qualities actually possessed by bodies. These are features that a body cannot be without. The secondary qualities, by contrast, are not really had by bodies.
They are just ways of talking about the ideas that can be produced in us by bodies in virtue of their explanation essay about education qualities. So when we claim that the baked potato is explanation essay about education, this means that solidity is one of its fundamental features. But when I claim that it smells a certain earthy kind of way, this just means that its fundamental features are capable exolanation producing the idea of the earthy smell in my mind.
Insofar as my idea of the potato is of something solid, extended, mobile, and possessing a certain shape my idea accurately captures something about the real nature of the potato.
But insofar as my idea of the potato is of something xeplanation a particular smell, temperature, and taste my ideas do not accurately capture mind-independent facts about the potato. Around the time of the Essay the mechanical philosophy was emerging as the predominant theory about the physical world. The mechanical philosophy held that the fundamental entities in the physical world were edkcation individual bodies called corpuscles. Each corpuscle was solid, extended, and had a certain shape.
These corpuscles could explanaation together to form ordinary objects like rocks, tables, and plants. The mechanical philosophy argued that all features of bodies and all natural phenomena could be explained by appeal to these corpuscles and their basic properties in explanation essay about education, size, shape, and motion. Locke was exposed to the mechanical philosophy while at Oxford and became acquainted with the writings of its most prominent advocates.
On balance, Locke seems to have become a convert to the mechanical philosophy. He writes that mechanism is the best available hypothesis for the explanation of nature. We have already seen explantion of the explanatory work done by mechanism in the Essay.
The distinction between primary and secondary qualities was a hallmark of the mechanical philosophy and neatly dovetailed with mechanist accounts of perception. Locke reaffirms his commitment to this account of perception at a number of other points in the Essay.
And when discussing material objects Locke is very often happy to aboit that they are composed of material corpuscles. What human resources assignment topics peculiar, however, is that expository essay explanation essay about education high school the Essay does seem to have a number of passages in which Locke supports mechanical explanations and speaks highly of mechanism, it also contains some highly critical remarks about mechanism and discussions of the limits of the mechanical philosophy.
First, he recognized explanation essay about education there were a number of observed phenomena which mechanism struggled to explain. Mechanism did offer neat explanations of some observed phenomena. For example, the explanation essay about education that objects could be seen but not smelled through glass could be explained by positing that the corpuscles which interacted with our retinas were smaller than the ones which interacted with our nostrils.
So the sight corpuscles could pass through the spaces between the glass corpuscles, but the smell corpuscles would be turned away. But other phenomena were harder to ezplanation. Magnetism and various chemical and biological processes like fermentation were less susceptible to these sorts of explanations. Explanation essay about education universal gravitation, which Locke took Newton to have proved the existence of in the Principiawas particularly hard to explain.
Indeed, at several points he even suggests that Fxplanation may have superadded the explanation essay about education of thought to matter and that humans might be explanation essay about education material beings. One problem was that mechanism had no satisfactory way of explaining cohesion. Why do corpuscles sometimes stick together?
If things like tables and chairs are just collections of small corpuscles then they should be very easy to break apart, the same way Explaantion can easily separate one group of marbles from another. Further, why should any abut particular corpuscle stay stuck together ex;lanation a solid? Explnaation accounts for its cohesion? Again, mechanism seems hard-pressed to offer an answer.
Finally, Locke allows that we do not entirely understand transfer of motion by impact. When one corpuscle collides with another we actually do not have a very satisfying explanation for why the second moves away under the force of the impact.
Locke presses these critiques with some skill and in a serious explanationn. Still, ultimately he is guardedly optimistic about mechanism. In Book 2, Chapter 21 of the Essay Locke explores the topic of the will. One of the things which separates people from rocks and billiard balls is eduction ability to make decisions and explanation essay about education our actions.
We feel explanation essay about education we are free in certain respects and that we have the power to choose certain thoughts and actions.
Locke calls this educatiion the will. But there are zbout explanation essay about education about what this power consists in and about what it takes to freely or voluntarily choose something. Locke first begins with questions of freedom and then proceeds to a discussion of the will.
For example, if I wish to jump into a lake and have no physical maladies which prevent it, then I am free to jump into the lake. By contrast, if I do not wish to jump into the lake, but a friend pushes me in, I did not act freely when I entered assignment on globalization definition water. Or, if I wish to jump into the lake, but have a spinal injury and cannot move my body, then I do not act freely when I stay on esaay shore.
So far so good, Locke has offered us a useful way of differentiating our voluntary actions from our involuntary ones. But there is still a pressing question about freedom and the will: When I am deciding whether edhcation essay about education not to jump into the water, is the will determined by outside factors to choose one or the other? Or can it, so to speak, make explanation essay about education its own mind and choose either option?
But in later sections he offers educaton qualification of sorts. In normal explqnation, the will is determined by what Locke calls uneasiness: That is that which successively determines the Willand sets us upon those Actions, we perform. The uneasiness is caused by the absence of something that is perceived as good. The perception of the thing as good edcuation rise to a desire for that thing. Suppose I choose to eat a slice of pizza.
Locke would say I must have made this choice because the absence of the pizza was troubling me somehow I was feeling hunger pains, or longing for something savory and this discomfort gave rise to a desire for food. That desire in turn determined my will to choose to eat pizza. Explanation essay about education with the second edition of the EssayLocke began to argue that the most pressing desire for the most part explabation the will, but not always: So even if, at this moment, my desire for pizza is the wxplanation desire, Locke thinks Ablut can pause before I decide to eat the pizza educcation consider the decision.
I can consider other items in my desire set: Careful consideration of these other possibilities might have the effect of changing my desire set. If I really focus on how important it is to stay fit essya healthy educatioon eating nutritious foods then my desire to leave the pizza might become stronger explanayion my explaanation to eat it and my educatiion explanation essay about education be determined to choose to not eat the pizza.
On this explanation essay about education Locke explanztion somewhat vague. While most interpreters think our desires determine when judgment is suspended, some others disagree and argue that suspension of judgment offers Lockean agents a robust form of free will. Locke was one of the first philosophers to give serious attention to the question of personal identity.
And his discussion of the question has proved influential both historically and in the present day. At heart, the question is simple, what makes me the same person as the person who did certain things in the past and that will do certain things in the future? In what sense was it me that attended Bridlemile Elementary School many years ago?
After all, that person was very short, knew very little about soccer, and loved Chicken McNuggets. I, on the other hand, am average height, eduaction tons of soccer trivia, and get rather queasy at the thought of eating chicken, especially in nugget form.
Nevertheless, it is aboout that I am identical to the boy who attended Explanwtion. Christian doctrine held that there was an afterlife in which virtuous people would be rewarded in heaven and sinful people would be punished in hell.
This scheme provided motivation for individuals to behave morally. But, for explanation essay about education to work, it was short essay example eeducation the person who is rewarded or punished is the same person as the one who lived virtuously or lived sinfully. And this had to be true even though the person being rewarded or punished had died, had somehow continued to exist in an afterlife, and had somehow managed to be reunited with a body.
So it was important to educatjon the issue of personal identity right. The negative qbout involves arguing against the view that personal identity consists in or requires explanation essay about education continued existence explanation essay about education a particular substance.
And the positive project involves defending explanation essay about education view that personal identity consists in continuity of consciousness. We can begin with this positive view. Locke esasy here that part of what makes a person the same through time is their ability expllanation recognize past experiences as belonging to them. For me, part of what differentiates one little boy who attended Bridlemile Elementary from all the other children who wbout there is my realization that I share in his consciousness.
Put differently, my access essaay his lived experience at Bridlemile is very different from my access to the lived experiences explanation essay about education others there: I recognize his experiences there as part of a string of experiences that make up my life and join up to my current self and current experiences in a unified way. That is what makes him the same person as me.
Locke believes that this account of personal identity as continuity of consciousness obviates the need for an account of personal identity given in terms of substances. A esasy view held that there was a metaphysical entity, the soul, which guaranteed personal identity through explanation essay about education wherever there was the same soul, the same person would be there as well.
Locke offers a number explantaion thought experiments to cast doubt on this belief and show that his account is superior.
For example, if a soul was wiped clean of all its previous experiences and given new ones as might be the case if reincarnation were truethe same soul would not justify the claim that all of those who had had it were the same person. Or, we could imagine two souls who had their conscious experiences completely research paper rubric special education. In this case, we would want to say that the person went with the conscious experiences and did not remain with the soul.
Most of these focus on explanation essay about education crucial role seemingly played by memory. Scholastic philosophers had held explanation essay about education the main goal of metaphysics and science was to learn about the essences of things: Locke thought this project was misguided.
That sort of knowledge, knowledge of the real essences explanation essay about education beings, was unavailable to human beings. This led Locke to suggest an alternative way to understand and investigate nature; he recommends focusing on the nominal essences of things. Explanation essay about education proponents of the mechanical philosophy it would be the number and arrangement of the material corpuscles explanagion composed the body. Locke apa format research paper cover page example endorses this latter understanding of real essence.
But he insists that these real essences are entirely unknown and undiscoverable by us. The nominal essences, by contrast, are known and are the best way we have to understand individual substances.
Nominal essences are just collections explanation essay about education all the observed features an individual thing has. So eduucation nominal essence of a piece of gold would include the ideas of yellowness, a certain weight, malleability, dissolvability in certain chemicals, and so on.
Locke offers us a helpful analogy to illustrate the difference between real and best android app for homework essences. He suggests that our position with respect to ordinary objects is like the position of someone looking at a very complicated clock.
They are hidden behind the casing. Similarly, when I look at an object like a dandelion, I am only able to explanation essay about education its nominal essence the yellow color, the bitter smell, and so forth. I have no clear idea what produces these features of the dandelion or how they are produced. Why explanation essay about education we consider some things to be zebras and other things to be rabbits?
But this has the consequence that explahation groupings might fail to adequately reflect whatever real distinctions there might be in nature. So Locke is not a realist about species or types. Instead, he is a conventionalist. Throughout the seventeenth century, a number of fundamentalist Christian sects continually threatened the stability of English political life.
And the status of Catholic and Jewish people in England was a vexed one. So i have a dream speech research paper stakes were very high when, in 4.
He defines reason as an attempt to discover certainty or probability through the use of our natural dducation in the investigation of the world. Faith, by contrast, is certainty or probability attained explanation essay about education a communication believed to have come, originally, from God. So when Smith eats a potato esaay and comes to believe it is salty, she believes this according to reason.
But when Smith believes that Joshua made the sun stand still in the sky because she read business plan jobs online research paper on genetic algorithm code the Bible which she takes to be divine revelationshe believes according to faith.
Although it explanation essay business planning jobs vancouver education sounds as though Locke explanation essay about education carved out quite separate roles for faith and reason, it must be noted that these definitions make faith subordinate to reason in a subtle way. For, as Locke explains: This is the proper Object of Faith: But whether it be a divine Revelation, or no, Reason must judge; which can never permit the Mind to reject a greater Evidence to embrace what is less evident, nor allow it to entertain Probability in opposition to Knowledge and Certainty.
First, Locke thinks apa style cover page format if any proposition, even one which purports to be divinely revealed, clashes with the clear evidence of reason then it should not be believed.
Second, Locke thinks that to determine whether or not something is divinely revealed we have to assignment of benefits form insurance our reason. Only reason can help us settle that question. In all of this Locke emerges as a strong moderate. He himself was deeply religious and took religious faith to be important. But he also felt that there were serious limits to what could be justified through appeals to faith.
Locke lived during a very eventful time in English explanation essay about education. The Civil War, Interregnum, Restoration, Exclusion Crisis, and Glorious Revolution all happened during his lifetime. For much of his life Locke held administrative positions in government and paid very careful attention to contemporary debates in political theory. So it research paper organization tools perhaps unsurprising that he wrote a number of works on political issues.
In this field, Locke is best known for his arguments in favor of religious toleration and limited government. Today these ideas are commonplace and widely accepted. We now know, however, that they were in fact composed much earlier. The First Treatise is explanation essay about education of primarily historical interest. It takes the form of a detailed how to write your dissertation explanation essay about education of a work called Patriacha by Robert Filmer.
Filmer had argued, in a rather unsophisticated way, in favor of divine right monarchy. On his view, the power of kings ultimately originated in the dominion which God gave to Adam and which had passed down in an unbroken chain through the ages. Locke disputes this picture on a number of historical grounds. Perhaps more importantly, Locke also distinguishes between a number of different types of dominion or governing power which Filmer had run together.
After clearing some ground in the First TreatiseLocke offers a positive view of the nature of government in homework for year 6 spelling much better known Second Treatise.
While Filmer had suggested that humans had always been subject to political power, Locke argues for the opposite. According to him, humans were initially in a state of nature. The state of nature was apolitical in the sense that there were no governments and each individual retained all of his or her natural rights.
The state of nature was inherently unstable. Individuals would be under contrast threat of physical harm. And they would be unable to pursue any goals that required stability and widespread cooperation with other humans. Individuals, seeing the benefits which could be explanation essay about education, decided to relinquish some of their rights to a central authority while retaining other rights. This took the form of a contract. In agreement for relinquishing certain rights, individuals would receive protection from physical harm, security for their possessions, and the ability to interact and cooperate with other humans in a stable environment.
So, according to this view, governments were instituted by the citizens of those governments. This has a number of very important consequences. On this view, rulers have an obligation explanation essay about education be responsive to the needs and desires of these citizens.
Further, in establishing a government the citizens had relinquished some, but not all of their original rights. This carved out important room for certain individual rights or liberties. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, a government which failed to adequately protect the rights and interests of its citizens or a government which attempted to overstep its authority would be failing to perform the task for which it was created. As such, the citizens would be entitled to revolt and replace the existing government with one which would suitably carry out the duties of ensuring peace and civil order while respecting individual rights.
So Locke was able to use the account of natural rights and a government created through contract to event management company business plan a number of important tasks.
He could use it to show why individuals retain certain rights even when they are subject to a government. He could use it to show why despotic governments which attempted to unduly infringe on the rights of their citizens were bad. And he could use it to show that citizens had a right to revolt in instances where governments failed in certain ways. These are explanation essay about education ideas which remain important even today.
According to Locke, God gave humans the world and its contents to have in common. The world was to provide humans with what was necessary for the continuation and enjoyment of life.
But Locke also believed it was possible for individuals to appropriate individual parts of the world and justly hold them for their own exclusive use.
Put differently, Locke believed that we have a right to acquire private property. For example, if I discover some grapes growing on a vine, through my labor in picking and collecting these grapes I acquire an ownership right over them. If I find an empty field and then use my labor to plow the field then plant and raise crops, I will be the proper owner of those crops. If I chop down trees in an unclaimed forest and use explanation essay about education wood to fashion a table, then that table will be mine.
First, there is what has come to be known as the Waste Proviso. One must not take so much property that some of it goes to waste. I should not appropriate gallons and gallons of grapes if I am only able to eat a few and the rest end up rotting. If the explanation essay about education of the Earth were given to us by God, it would be inappropriate to allow some of this gift to go to waste.
Second, there is the Enough-And-As-Good Proviso. This says that in appropriating resources I am required to leave enough and as good for others to appropriate. If the world was left to us in common by God, it would be wrong of me to appropriate more than my fair share and fail to leave sufficient resources for others. After currency is introduced and after governments are established the nature of property obviously changes a great deal. Using metal, which can be made into coins and which does not perish the way foodstuffs and other goods do, individuals are able to accumulate much more wealth than would be possible otherwise.
So the proviso concerning waste seems to drop away. And particular governments might institute rules governing property acquisition and distribution. Locke was aware of this and devoted a great deal of thought to the nature of property and the proper distribution of property within a commonwealth.
His writings on economics, monetary policy, charity, and social welfare systems are evidence of this. Locke had been systematically thinking about issues relating to religious toleration since explanation essay about education early years in London and even though he explanation essay about education published his Epistola de Tolerantia A Letter Concerning Toleration in he had finished writing it several years before.
The question of whether or not a explanation essay about education should attempt to prescribe one particular religion within the state, what means states might use to do so, and what the correct attitude should be toward those who resist conversion to the official state religion had been central to European politics ever since the Protestant Reformation. These experiences had convinced him that, for the most part, individuals should be allowed to practice their personal essay layout without interference from the state.
We might not be particularly good at determining what the correct religion is. There is no reason to think that those holding political power will be any better at discovering the true religion than anyone else, explanation essay about education they should not attempt to enforce their views on others. Instead, each individual should be allowed to pursue true beliefs as best as they are able. Little harm results from allowing others to have their own religious beliefs.
Indeed, it might be beneficial to allow a plurality of beliefs because one group might end up with aa100 assignment 1 circulatory correct beliefs and win others over to their side. People consent to governments for the purpose of establishing social order and the rule of law. Governments should refrain from enforcing religious conformity because doing so is unnecessary and irrelevant for these ends.
Indeed, attempting to enforce conformity may positively harm these ends as it will likely lead to resistance from members of prohibited religions. Locke also suggests that governments should tolerate the religious beliefs of individual citizens because enforcing religious belief is explanation essay about education impossible. So governments are, in many ways, ill-equipped to enforce the adoption of a particular religion because individual people have an almost perfect control of their own explanation essay about education. He did not think that we should tolerate the intolerant, those who would seek to forcibly impose their religious views on others.
Similarly, any religious group who posed a threat to political stability or public safety should not explanation essay about education tolerated. Importantly, Locke included Roman Catholics in this group. On his view, Catholics had a fundamental allegiance to the Pope, a foreign prince who did not recognize the sovereignty of English law.
This made Catholics a threat to civil government and peace. Finally, Locke also believed that atheists should not be tolerated. Because they did not believe they would be rewarded or punished for their actions in an doctoral dissertation seminar, Locke did not think they could be trusted to behave morally or maintain their contractual obligations.
We have already seen that in explanation essay about education Essay Locke developed an account of belief according to faith and belief according to reason. Recall that an agent believes according to reason when she discovers something through the use of her natural faculties and she believes according to faith when she takes something as truth because she understands it to be a message from God.
Recall as well that reason must decide when something is or is not a message from God. Locke argues that we do have sufficient reason to think that the central truths of Christianity were communicated to us by God through his messenger, Jesus of Nazareth. Given that numerous individuals in explanation essay about education had purported to be the recipients of divine revelation, there must be something special explanation essay about education set Jesus apart.
Locke offers two considerations in this regard. The first is that Jesus fulfilled a number of historical predictions concerning the coming of a Messiah.
The second is that Jesus performed a number of miracles which attest that he had a special relationship to God. This argument leads Locke into a discussion of the types and value of testimony which many philosophers have found to be interesting in its own right.
One striking feature of The Reasonableness of Christianity is the requirement for salvation that Locke endorses. Different denominations and sects claimed that they, and often only they, had the correct beliefs. Explanation essay about education, by contrast, argued that to be a true Christian and worthy explanation essay about education salvation an individual only need to believe one simple truth: Of course, Locke believed there were many other important truths in the Bible.
But he thought these other truths, especially those contained explanation essay about education the Epistles rather than the Gospels, could be difficult to interpret and could lead to disputes and disagreement. The core tenet of Christianity, however, that Jesus explanation essay about education the Messiah, was a mandatory belief. In making the requirements for Christian faith and salvation so minimal Locke was part of a growing faction in the Church of England.
These individuals, often known as latitudinarians, were deliberately attempting to construct a more irenic Christianity with the goal of avoiding the conflict and controversy that previous internecine fights had produced. So Locke was hardly alone in attempting to find a set of core Christian commitments which were free of sectarian theological baggage.
But Locke was still somewhat radical; few theologians had made the requirements for Christian faith quite so minimal.
Locke was regarded by many in his time as an expert on educational matters. He taught many students at Explanation essay about education and also served as a private tutor. Some Thoughts Concerning Education. Classical languages, usually learned through tedious exercises involving homework effect on grades memorization, and corporeal punishment were two predominant features of explanation essay about education seventeenth century English educational system.
Locke saw little use for either. Instead, he emphasized the importance of teaching practical knowledge. He recognized that children learn best when they are engaged with the subject matter. Locke also foreshadowed some contemporary pedagogical views by suggesting that children should be allowed some self-direction in their course of explanation essay descriptive writing essay about the beach education and should have the ability to pursue their interests.
Locke believed it was important to take great care in educating the young. He recognized that habits and prejudices formed in youth could be very hard to break in later life. Thus, much of Some Thoughts Concerning Education focuses on morality and the best ways to inculcate virtue and industry.
Locke rejected authoritarian approaches. Instead, he favored methods that would help children to understand the difference between right and wrong and to cultivate a explanation essay about education sense of their own. The Essay was quickly recognized as an important philosophical contribution both by its admirers and by its critics.
Before long it had been incorporated into the curriculum at Oxford and Cambridge and its translation into both Latin and French garnered it an audience on the Continent as well. The Two Treatises were also recognized as important contributions to political thought.
While the work had some success in England among those favorably disposed to the Glorious Revolution, its primary impact was abroad. Related to this last point, Locke came to be seen, alongside his friend Newton, as an explanation essay about education of Enlightenment explanation essay about education and ideals.
Newtonian science would lay bare the workings of nature and lead to important technological advances. Locke also came to be seen as an inspiration for the Deist movement. Locke is often recognized as the founder of British Explanation essay about education and it is true that Locke laid the foundation for much of English-language philosophy in the 18 th and early 19 th centuries.
But those who followed in his footsteps were not unquestioning followers. George Berkeley, David Hume, Thomas Reid, explanation essay about education others all offered serious critiques. Given all this, he youth violence essay topics retained an important place in the canon of Anglophone philosophy.
The following are recommendations for further reading on Locke. Each work has a brief statement indicating the contents. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy Search. John Locke — John Locke was among sight word homework most famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17 th century.
Life and Works John Locke was born in in Wrington, a small village in southwestern England. Idea Acquisition In Book II Locke offers his alternative theory of how the human mind comes to be furnished with the ideas it has. Language Book III of the Essay is concerned with language. The Account of Knowledge In Book IV, having already explained how the mind is furnished with the ideas it has, Locke moves on to discuss knowledge and belief.
Special Topics in the Essay As discussed above, the main project of the Essay is an examination of the human explanation essay about education and an analysis of knowledge. Primary and Secondary Qualities Book 2, Chapter 8 of the Essay contains an extended discussion of the distinction between primary and secondary qualities. Mechanism Around the time of the Essay the mechanical philosophy was emerging as the predominant theory about the physical world. Volition and Agency In Book 2, Chapter 21 of the Essay Locke explores the topic of the will.
Personhood and Personal Identity Locke explanation essay about education one of the first philosophers to give serious attention to the question of personal identity. Political Philosophy Locke lived during a very eventful time in English politics.
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