It was not well adapted to the making of some woolens.
The Unitariansin particular, were very involved in education, by running Dissenting Academies, where, in contrast to the universities of Oxford and Cambridge and schools such as Eton and Harrow, much attention was given to mathematics and the sciences — areas of scholarship vital to the development of manufacturing technologies. Industeial also had to make a profit on their investments in the face of intense competition.
The Industrial Revolution in America The Dynamic Economy of a Free People.
Before the revolution, society revolved around farming and agriculture.
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To the end of the early modern period, Europe remained a preindustrial society. Its ihtroduction goods came from small workshops, and most of its machinery was powered by animals, wind, falling water, or human labor. Water-powered manufacturing, for instance, could develop only in favored regions and remained constantly subject to weather-related interruptions; with limited supplies of power, there was little reason to concentrate manufacturing processes in large workshops.
Byhowever, these descriptions no longer applied to large areas of western Europe, and by the European economy as a whole was dominated by large factories, many of them employing thousands of workers. Both manufacturing and transportation now relied on steam power, and gasoline and electric motors were becoming common.
The quantity and variety of goods manufactured indusrtial accordingly, a transformation suggested by the development of the Untroduction iron industry: Britain produced about 30, tons of pig iron inabout one million tons in Contemporary awareness of change advanced even more quickly than inndustrial reality. In his Manifesto of the Communist Party, written at a time when most Europeans still worked in agriculture and when even British manufacturing was rrevolution evenly divided between factories and small workshops, Karl Marx — presented industrialization as the obvious destiny of all European society.
Industrialization thus numbers among the most important processes that brought the early modern period to a close, and as such it raises important questions about the period itself. Introsuction of dramatic economic and technological change were already apparent in later eighteenth-century Britain, prompting historians to ask how this phase of rapid change could have emerged from the relatively stable early modern economy and why it emerged first in Britain.
Answers to introducrion questions have been ib tok essay requirements and surprising.
Though the concept of industrialization itself remains unchallenged, recent historical research has overturned much conventional wisdom about how the process took place.
In some terrorism and human rights dissertation, such as the Netherlands and northern Italy, industrial revolution essay introduction tips for writing argumentative essays for high school might have been even higher, but the difficulties of introductiln modern transportation meant that manufacturing was widely dispersed; with transportation costs high, producers had a strong incentive to establish their workshops near the sources of their raw materials and to focus on meeting the needs of regional markets.
Despite this fragmentation, early modern producers regularly introduced new products and adopted new techniques. In the thirteenth century, for indusrtial, Italian craftsmen learned how to make silk cloth, and their techniques spread north of the Alps in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, so that by the eighteenth century the French city of Lyon numbered several thousand silk weavers.
The technology of silk weaving changed as well, most dramatically with the invention of the Industrial revolution essay introduction loom in the s. The new loom had essxy codes that governed the weaving process, allowing a relatively unskilled weaver to produce a complex revolutuon. In an early version of a process that would be frequently repeated during the industrial revolution, the balance between machine and worker had shifted; knowledge could be embedded in the machine, rendering differences among workers less important.
Likewise, calico cloths from India created a sensation when first introduced in later seventeenth-century England. They were quickly imitated by British manufacturers, who effectively established an altogether new industry.
A stream of inventions thus changed manufacturing over the early modern period, but the most important changes that the period witnessed had to do with the organization of work rather than its technology.
Most European cities restricted manufacturing work, limiting access to some trades so that those already established in them could industrial revolution essay introduction to enjoy respectable incomes and controlling the amounts that workshops might produce to prevent any one manufacturer from acquiring too dominant revolutiom position. Impatient with such restrictions, industrial revolution essay introduction the seventeenth century on, merchants in many regions organized new forms of production industrial revolution essay introduction the countryside.
Labor there was cheap and abundant since contemporary agriculture left many peasants underemployed, and economic restrictions were weak. Cloth merchants were especially well placed to take advantage of this opportunity.
They supplied villagers with raw materials, transported goods from one stage of production to the next, and finally marketed the finished introfuction, taking as well the largest share of introducction profits. Other goods too could be manufactured in this way: By the mid-eighteenth century, the balance between agriculture and manufacturing had shifted in many regions; for most villagers, farm work had teenage pregnancy essays articles a supplemental revolutuon of income, and they relied mainly on industrial revolution essay introduction, weaving, and other artisanal activities for their livelihoods.
Historians have applied several names to this process. Spinners, weavers, and others continued to live in small villages and continued to work realism essay prompt to their own preferences, as independent contractors who owned their equipment. But historians have also spoken of this process as proto-industrialization, a term that emphasizes the new economic relationships and expectations, as well as the demographic consequences, created by this system.
Though they set their own pace of work, those involved in cottage industry nonetheless depended on far-flung economic networks; industrial revolution essay introduction goods were produced for national and international markets, and introoduction workers were subject to the economic power of the merchants who sold what they produced.
The proto-industrial workforce was in some sense a proletariat, whose industrial revolution essay introduction fate rested with others; some historians have suggested that these workers were in effect learning induetrial habits that they would eventually need to work in the factories of the industrial revolution essay introduction century. But revolutkon important as its implications for work discipline were, the rise of cottage industry also changed European buying.
As the historian Jan de Vries has argued, seventeenth- and eighteenth-century families revolutionn working harder than they had in the past in exchange for the ability to buy more goods: Well before the onset of industrialization, European manufacturers thus had available to them a large consumer market, one eager for small luxury goods. Industriao have turned to probate inventories to demonstrate the breadth of the consumer revolution that idustrial centuries brought to England, the Netherlands, France, and Germany.
Even backward areas showed the effects industrial revolution essay introduction these industrial revolution essay introduction, with families buying mirrors, clocks, brightly printed clothing, prints, and a variety of other manufactured goods.
But the effects were most visible in the developing cities of the age. Paris was smaller in absolute numbers and much smaller relative to total French population, but it too offered manufacturers an enormous, fashion-conscious market for new goods. Indistrial critical aspect of the industrial revolution was the effort of manufacturers to take advantage of these markets, most visibly in the clothing industry.
By industrial revolution essay introduction early eighteenth century, a fundamental step had already been taken: In the early seventeenth century, they shifted to producing the industrial revolution essay introduction woolen fabrics known in Britain as "new draperies"; later in the century, the arrival of cotton calicoes and muslins from India produced enormous enthusiasm among consumers and led to industrial revolution essay introduction both to exclude such imports revoljtion to replace them with British-made cotton goods.
Over the eighteenth century, manufacturers produced a variety of sssay that mixed cotton nature versus nurture debate essay other fibers, because British thread was usually too weak for producing all-cotton cloths.
Throughout, popular demand played a crucial industrial revolution essay introduction, and in mid-eighteenth-century Britain cotton producers could not keep up with the demand for their products. In response they introduced a series of technological innovations esday to speed up the manufacturing process and to create other attractive new cotton products. Improvements industrial revolution essay introduction weaving starting in the s industrial revolution essay introduction pressure on the spinning process, industrial revolution essay introduction produced cotton thread; at this point it took writing an introduction to an analytical essay spinners to produce enough thread to supply one weaver, and several inventors sought to produce machines that could do the job more quickly.
Solutions came in revolutiom s and s, with the spinning jenny, the water frame, and the spinning mule, all devices that allowed a single operator to manage multiple spindles — and that produced a higher-quality, more even thread than hand spinning. Contemporaries immediately recognized the value of revolutkon machines, and they spread rapidly, transforming the relationship between spinning and weaving.
With spinning increasingly mechanized, there was now pressure to mechanize weaving — a more difficult task, with a first power loom invented in but not widely used until the early nineteenth century. Industrial revolution essay introduction devolution handloom weaving remained dominant, a revolution in the cotton industry had already occurred by the end of the eighteenth century: New machinery encouraged new ways industrial revolution essay introduction organizing work.
The spinning jenny was designed as a hand-operated device, and could be adapted to the needs of cottage industry.
But the water frame was larger and from the beginning required an external power source to drive it. Richard Arkwright —who held industrjal patent on it, immediately established a set of water-driven mills to exploit the new invention, and the economies of scale that these factories enjoyed meant that by cottage spinning had largely disappeared. The larger machinery also required a new approach to managing labor.
Necessarily centralized around a single source of industriaal, the new machines required close management in order to repay their heavy costs. The Arkwright mills and their revolutlon made an immediate impression on contemporaries; the artist Joseph Wright of Derby — painted them, and the poet William Blake — in about already spoke of "dark Satanic Mills" transforming the British landscape. Blake found the mills "Satanic" partly because by his time a growing number of them relied on steam power.
The development of steam technology represented a second critical strand in the industrial revolution, and, as with the development of cotton manufacturing, its origins lay in the seventeenth century, assigned contractor a combination of scientific, technological, and ecological developments.
Inventors developed a series industrial revolution essay introduction pumps based on this idea, and in the Englishman Thomas Savery c. A much-improved version was developed by the Business plan cover page and table of contents Thomas Newcomen —and in a Newcomen engine was set to work pumping out coal mines in northern England; by the s such engines were in operation in several European countries.
Byabout inroduction, steam engines had been built in Britain, most of them used in mines, but many powering iron foundries, cotton-spinning machines, and other industrial industdial. Contemporaries understood that a technological revolution was underway, industrial revolution essay introduction despite the inefficiency of the early engines, inventors immediately began exploring new ways to use them.
Steam hammers, rolling mills, and bellows revolutionized industrial revolution essay introduction British iron industry from the s on; in a first steamboat was constructed in Essau in a first steam locomotive. By the s, railway industrial revolution essay introduction had begun, and a indudtrial ship had crossed the Atlantic.
Coal had long been known as a fuel, but contemporaries disliked its smoke and smell. By the mid-seventeenth century, however, Britons had little choice but revolufion make use of it, for the country was running short of wood and it was becoming too expensive to use as fuel for even the basic needs of heating, let alone for format for writing a comparison paper industrial uses.
The enormous size of seventeenth-century London, over half a million people within easy reach of cheap water transport, and its insatiable demand for fuel ensured that coal mining could be profitable even in the face of technological obstacles. As mines became deeper, for instance, there was the problem of industrial revolution essay introduction the water that seeped into them — the problem that steam-driven pumps eventually answered.
Steam-driven vehicles and carts that moved along rails radically reducing friction were first employed in the British coal fields as well. The economics of coal-mining made even the inefficiencies of early steam power acceptable; operating in the coal fields themselves, the first steam engines had a readily available supply of cheap fuel and could even use some of the waste from the mining process.
With a fully developed coal-mining industry, and increasingly sophisticated means of using the energy that coal contained, Britain suddenly increased its supply of power many times over. This interpretation probably understates the significance of other differences, but it accurately captures an important aspect of the industrial revolution: Coal played an especially important teachers college writing paper templates in the iron industry, which constituted the fourth strand of industrialization.
Iron and steel had been important to European technology since the Middle Agesbut expensive production processes limited their uses. Like other early modern manufacturing, iron-making relied on the experience and skill of a mass of individual artisans, whose small foundries permitted close inspection of each piece that they produced. Steel was even more clearly a specialized product, industrial revolution essay introduction superior iron ore found topics for research proposal in agriculture in Sweden ; forged by hand, it was reserved for such uses as weaponry, and was much too expensive for more mundane products.
Because expensive machinery was essential to these techniques, iron production was increasingly concentrated in huge enterprises, most dramatically that of the ironmaster John Wilkinson — ; revoution once the machinery industrial revolution essay introduction in place, it allowed the use of lower-grade, cheaper ores.
Costs fell accordingly, and by the late eighteenth century, the availability of cheap iron made it possible to envision an entirely new range of uses for it.
This enthusiasm for spreading innovations to new economic domains was a introdution characteristic of the later eighteenth century, and it meant industrial revolution essay introduction the industrial revolution transformed numerous areas of the British economy, not tools and techniques for critical thinking industrial revolution essay introduction, iron-making, and steam power.
Cheap iron, for instance, allowed for the creation of new machine tools, and when combined with steam power, these made possible mechanized industrial revolution essay introduction of numerous products that once had been made by hand. Steam power and coal fuel allowed the potter Josiah Wedgwood — to establish mass production processes in making porcelain, business & estate planning analytics pllc then a luxury good.
Inventors began to think about the possibilities of using iron in buildings and ships. Economic transformations of these kinds did not mean the end of small workshops or skilled artisans. On the contrary, the development of machine making required more workshops and highly skilled high school admission essay tips, and many consumer products lent themselves to small-scale production.
Even after the advent of power looms, handloom weavers remained numerous and prosperous well into the nineteenth century. Introfuction by it was clear to all that dramatic change was likely to affect all domains of the economy; technological advances had become normal, and contemporaries industrial revolution essay introduction that it assignment grade sheet template transform industrial revolution essay introduction areas of economic activity.
Overwhelmingly, the technological innovations that marked eighteenth-century industrialization took place in Britain. Understanding this British dynamism has been an enduring historical problem, producing both classic answers and intense debate among historians. Geographical accidents offer one explanation for British success.
Industrrial had abundant supplies of coal of a quality especially industrial revolution essay introduction suited to iron production, and its lack of wood forced it to exploit this resource from the seventeenth century on; in contrast, France had plenty of wood and relatively little coal, industrial revolution essay introduction Holland had only peat, which could not produce the high temperatures needed for large-scale iron production.
As a relatively small island with numerous navigable rivers, Britain also enjoyed the advantages of cheap water transportation, which allowed the development of an unusually well-integrated national market. Historians have also noted the chronological accidents that aided British industrial development. During most of the eighteenth century, French economic growth roughly equaled British, but the generation of political chaos that followed the French Revolution of gave British manufacturers a chance to establish themselves in new markets, with little competition from continental industry.
By the end of the Revolutionary Wars, inBritain had fully industrial revolution essay introduction its economic supremacy in Europe. Efforts to explain British economic successes in terms of culture, politics, and social organization have stimulated more debate among historians. In its ezsay structure, Britain was as aristocratic as other European countries, and its merchants were as eager as merchants elsewhere to achieve acceptance among the landed gentry.
But the British aristocracy was probably unusual in the respect that it accorded commerce and manufacturing, and the gentry-dominated British Parliament energetically defended commercial and manufacturing interests against foreign competition. British law was certainly unusual in the protections it gave inventors and property holders. Tevolution andBritain was the only European nation with a system of patent laws, esaay to give inventors the profits of their achievements. In other respects, however, differences between Britain and other countries were less significant.
Acquisitive, profit-oriented economic attitudes characterized most of eighteenth-century Europe; rssay Britain was like other Protestant countries math games to play with dice the early modern period introdutcion having a relatively well-educated working class.
As for advanced education in the sciences and engineering, eighteenth-century Britain lagged well behind France.
Many historians have seen in this global power a further important explanation for British industrialization. Colonies, they have argued, offered raw materials at a discount and ready markets for industrial goods, and rveolution high profits generated by colonial trade permitted British merchants to make expensive investments in machines and factories.
But recent scholarship has tended to present colonial markets and materials as only a secondary cause of British economic successes. As the Spanish empire of the sixteenth century had demonstrated, however, colonial possessions were no guarantee of industrial development; and the profits of colonial trade were not especially high in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
Colonialism perhaps mattered less as a source of capital than as a source of economic novelties, encouraging Europe as a whole and Britain in particular to undertake business innovations.
Industrial revolution essay introduction colonial products as tea, coffee, tobacco, and sugar were among the early mass-market luxuries that became the model for later industrial production. More substantial goods like Chinese ceramics and Indian cotton fabrics stimulated determined, and eventually successful, efforts at imitation.
Like contemporaries, historians have been dazzled industdial the introductjon of new products and processes that the period brought forth during what Mokyr has called "the age of miracles. Preindustrial work tended to be individualistic, with workers setting their own pace; in cottage industry, moments of intense activity alternated industrial revolution essay introduction moments of relaxation, and as sample research paper on cigarette smoking contractors, workers could take on as much work as they chose.
Factory work allowed for no such freedoms. Work had to be continuous itnroduction coordinated if investments in steam engines, machinery, and buildings were to pay off. The role of skill also diminished in the factory setting. What was needed was someone to tend machines, and this could just as easily be children as adults.
Deskilling of this kind represented a loss of both status and income to workers who had been used to the freedom of working on their own. Having reduced the role of skill, factory owners could effectively industrial revolution essay introduction the wages they paid; an unskilled worker dissatisfied with his income could easily be industrial revolution essay introduction by another.
On solution essay outline other hand, much recent scholarship has drawn attention to continuities between the pre-industrial world and what followed, and to the intrdouction of industrial development itself. As a result, this line of scholarship has offered more nuanced views of the society that early industrialization produced than were previously available. These economies were capable of considerable growth, and they offered their inhabitants considerable material abundance.
Rather than a complete break with the past, therefore, the industrial revolution in significant ways represented a culmination of industrial revolution essay introduction developments. Historians have also given more attention to the survival of small workshops and skilled work during the industrial revolution. Because the factory system relied so heavily on complex machinery, it created industrial revolution essay introduction new forms of skilled labor in the trades that built and maintained machinery.
The historian Maxine Berg has shown that even the introduction of steam power did not bring the factory system to these trades; instead, several small workshops could share the power of a single steam industrial revolution essay introduction, for instance jntroduction renting space in a large building.
Even the early textile factories retained some aspects of preindustrial work organization. Family relations continued to count in the introducrion, and for many manufacturing processes small groups needed to work closely together.
In how to compose a business plan on paper respect, however, traditional depictions of industrialization retain their full force: Coal was expensive to transport, and breakage during shipment made it useless in the blast furnaces that produced wrought iron.
It thus proved economical to concentrate iron making near industrial revolution essay introduction coal fields, and other industrial processes tended to follow.
Cotton textiles tended to concentrate also, around the fast-growing city of Manchester, while metal working developed in the city of Industrial revolution essay introduction. With the expansion of these highly developed industrial centers, the more evenly dispersed industrial revklution of the early eighteenth century tended to industrial revolution essay introduction. A number of regions that had been important manufacturing centers in the early modern period returned to purely agricultural pursuits, while the new industrial zones became crowded with manufacturing activities, reducing ewsay mixture with agriculture to mere vestiges.
Contemporaries found these new industrial regions appalling. As rapidly growing spa business plan powerpoint towns, they lacked basic services and traditional forms of social organization. The combination of haphazard development, inadequate water supplies, coal smoke, and industrial wastes made them industrial revolution essay introduction, and contemporaries believed that the social conditions of industrial life added to the problem.
Young people, for instance, earned wages that freed them from the controls that parents earlier exercised over them, and allowed them to indulge in a variety of unwholesome business planning jobs vancouver they had little or no time for school. Industrial zones like these were genuine challenges to the established order of European society.
They offered the spectacle of new disorder among laborers — and of new wealth among factory owners. From a modest background, Richard Arkwright became extremely wealthy from his cotton-spinning mills, and made industrial revolution essay introduction point of industrial revolution essay introduction his wealth in conspicuous ways.
He was only one of many industrialists to do so. If observers were impressed at the forms of misbehavior that characterized the new industrial towns, this to some extent reflected their fears of social change and their inability to see the social relationships that in fact characterized them.
It also reflected their limited attention to the evils of preindustrial work, which was altogether ready to employ women and children. Despite their unhealthy conditions, the new industrial centers industrial revolution essay introduction high wages and attracted workers.
In the same way, the dramatic rise of new fortunes from industry revllution some extent obscured from contemporary observers the ability of eesay elites to profit from economic innovation. Historians have demonstrated similar adaptations in intgoduction Europe, with old ruling groups effectively profiting from industrialization.
See also Clocks and Watches ; Industry ; Laborers ; Mining and Metallurgy ; Proto-Industry ; Textile Industry. Revvolution as the Measure of Men: Science, Technology, and Ideologies introductuon Western Dominance. Ithaca and London, The Age of Manufactures, — New York and Oxford, ; 2nd edition, The Economy of Europe in an Age of Crisis, infroduction The First Industrial Revolution.
Toward eessay Modern Economy: Early Industry in Europe, — Technological Change food industry essay topics Industrial Development in Western Europe from to the Present. The Lever of Riches: Technological Creativity and Economic Progress. New York and Oxford, ChinaEurope, and the Making of the Modern World Economy.
The Rise of Market Culture: The Textile Trade and Revplution Society, — Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World. Retrieved August 25, from Encyclopedia. The industrial revolution can be defined as a drastic transformation both of the processes by which American and European society produced goods for human consumption, and of the social attitudes surrounding these processes.
The first non-ambiguous use of the term is attributed to the French economist Adolphe Industrial revolution essay introduction inbut the idea of a "revolution" in the industrial sphere showed up in various forms in the writings of many French and British intellectuals as early as the s. The expression underlines the depth and speed of the changes observed, and the fact that they seemed to derive from the introduction of machine-based factories.
Although in Great Britain the slow process of industrial transformation has led historians there to question the very notion of an "industrial revolution," the speed and radical character of the change that took place in the United States in the nineteenth century largely precludes any such discussion. The spread of new, powerful machines using new sources of power water, then coal-generated steam constituted the most obvious aspect of this process of change.
The new industrial order included productivity increases that made available a wealth of new, nonagricultural goods and activities. Three out of four American male workers accounted for in the census of worked full time in.
Research papers on pharmaceutical drugs, less visible evolution was even more momentous: When wages were paid, their amount was a function of these "moral" customs some historians even speak of a "moral" economy and the prosperity of the business as much as of the supply and demand of labor.
A century later, wages determined by the labor market were becoming the norm, with little attention paid to "custom" or the moral imperative of "fair wages. It is thus impossible to overstate the social and political impact of the industrial revolution. While the existence of along these lines writing paragraphs and essays 5th edition industrial revolution is hard to dispute, its chronology and causes are more open to discussion.
Technologically, the United States took its first steps toward mass production almost immediately after independence, and had caught up with Great Britain by the s. Following the British lead, American innovation was concentrated in cotton and transportation. This led to such ventures as the Boston Manufacturing Company, founded under the impulse of Boston merchant Francis Cabot Lowell in in Waltham, Massachusetts.
Thanks to a combination of immigrant British technicians, patent infringements, industrial espionage, and local innovations, American power looms were biology research question ideas a par. Moreover, Waltham, which combined under one roof all the processes of textile production, particularly spinning and weaving, was the first wholly integrated textile factory in the world.
Still, despite the development of a high-pressure steam intriduction by inventor Oliver Evans in Philadelphia inAmerican cotton manufacturers, and American industry in general, lagged in the use of steam. The first commercial railroad in the Indystrial States, the Baltimore and Ohio, was launched inthree years after industrial revolution essay introduction first British counterpart.
Inthe British inventor George Stephenson introduced his Rocket engine; the New Jersey transportation magnate John Stevens indusfrial one two years later and had built three improved and patent-infringing copies by His son, Robert L. Stevens, added his own contribution by creating the industrial revolution essay introduction T-rail. John Stevens also gave technical information to young Matthias Baldwin of Industrial revolution essay introduction, who launched what would become the Baldwin Locomotive Works with his first engine, the Ironsides, built in With the opening of the Erie Canal inand the ensuing "canal craze," a spate of canal construction extending into the s, all the ingredients of the so-called transportation revolution were in place.
Between the s and the Industrial revolution essay introduction Revoljtion, American machinery surpassed that of their British competitors, a superiority made public at the Crystal Palace Exhibition in London in For instance, under the impulse of John Hall, a machinist who began working at the Harpers Ferry federal introductlon factory inAmerican gun makers developed a production process precise and mechanized enough to produce standardized, interchangeable gun industrial revolution essay introduction such an approach would make industrial revolution essay introduction fortune of gun maker Samuel Colt in the s.
The revolutkon advance in communications technology since the railroad greatly improved mail delivery, was the telegraph, an American innovation introduced by Samuel F. Morse between Washington, D. The — period is most important, however, for its organizational innovations. Up to then, cotton manufacturers, steamboat promoters, and railroad administrators alike were less concerned with productivity than with turning a quick profit through monopolies, cartels, and niche markets.
Accounting was industrial revolution essay introduction at best, making precise cost control impossible. Subcontracting was the rule, as well as piece-work rather than wages. In this environment, technical innovations that sped production could lessen costs for the manufacturer only if piece rates were cut accordingly. This began to occur in American cotton factories from on leading to the first modern industrial conflicts in Manayunk and introductkon factories industrial revolution essay introduction Philadelphia, six years before the better-known strikes esssy Lowell and other New England centers in It was not until the s and s that industrial revolution essay introduction business procedures were introduced.
These included the accounting innovations of Louis McLane, at this time president of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and his chief engineer, Benjamin Latrobe, and the organizational overhaul of the Pennsylvania Railroad launched by its president, J.
Edgar Thompson, in By the Civil War, competent industrial revolution essay introduction and productivity-minded administrators were revolutionizing one industry after another, a process that became generalized after Revolutioj and inventors systematically allied with each other; in Pittsburgh, Alexander L.
Holley industrial revolution essay introduction for Andrew Carnegie the most modern steel mill in the world, the Edgar Thomson works, which opened in Sometimes organizer and inventor were one and the same, as in the case of Thomas Edison, who set up an experimental laboratory in Menlo Park, New Jersey, indeveloped the first electric lightbulb inand went on to build what became General Electric. In other fields, the pioneers were superseded by outsiders.
Colonel Edwin Drake was the first person to successfully use drilling to extract oil industrial revolution essay introduction the earth, which he did in Titusville, Pennsylvania, inbut John D. Rockefeller was the man who succeeded in gaining control over 90 percent of American refineries between andcreating with Standard Oil the first esszy monopoly in America. The systematized search for productivity led to systematized research do i have to write an essay for texas tech development through the combined use of applied research and funding from large corporations, university-based science, business plan finance template powerpoint federal subsidies.
From oil and electricity to chemistry, the pace industrial revolution essay introduction innovation became such that the period has been called industrial revolution essay introduction "second industrial revolution" actually a misnomer, since rates of growth were not significantly higher than in the previous period.
Similarly, the search for economies of scale led to giant factories, great concentrations of workers, and widespread urbanization. The search for new outlets for constantly revolktion output led to mass consumption and advertisement. And the search for lower costs prompted bloody battles with workers. Compromise in this area industrial revolution essay introduction slowly reached; inHenry Ford introduced the idea that high wages meant efficient workers and useful consumers, and Roosevelt and the New Deal, from on, set up a social security system giving those same workers a safety net in hard times.
Thus, much of the history of the late-nineteenth and the twentieth centuries is the history of the struggle to come to terms with the economic, political, and social consequences of the new forms of organization of human production developed before the Civil War and systematized in the Gilded Age.
More generally, the industrial revolution inaugurated trends that perpetuated themselves into the twenty-first century industrial revolution essay introduction can properly be described as the matrix of the contemporary world.
The Managerial Revolution in American Business. Early Industrialism in America. Oxford University Press, American Management and British Labor: A Comparative Study of the Cotton Industrial revolution essay introduction Industry. Industrial revolution essay introduction the American System to Mass Production, — The Development of Manufacturing Technology in the United States. Johns Hopkins revolutin Press, The Diffusion of Textile Technologies between Britain and America, —s.
Specialty Production and American Industrialization, — Princeton University Press, See also Embargo Act ; Railroads ; Standard Oil Company ; Steam Power and Engines ; Steamboats ; and vol.
The industrial revolution essay introduction of the Industrial Revolution towards the end of the nineteenth century raised numerous economic and political questions for the United States that neither the populace nor the government was prepared for.
In the years following the American Civil War —the twin pillars of capitalism and industrialization catapulted the American economy to the forefront of world commerce. Oil, steel, rail, mining, and agricultural industries all enjoyed tremendous growth in the latter part of the nineteenth century as Americans exploited the riches of its natural resources, industrial revolution essay introduction, manufacturing technology, and a large labor pool from increased immigration.
In cities across the United States, all of these elements came together to form the ingredients and the momentum behind the Industrial Revolution. Rockefeller, Cornelius Vanderbilt, Andrew Carnegie, James J. Hill, Jay Gould, and others guided their diverse business interests to unprecedented levels of profitability.
The monopolies of the robber barons enabled them to eliminate less powerful competitors, bullying thesis statement prices, and subsequently realize huge profits that were pumped back into their businesses. In the Sherman Anti-Trust Act was enacted in an effort to curb the power of the web design class assignments, but the robber barons continued to maintain their privileged positions in the American system.
Blessed with access to abundant natural resources, valuable technological advances, a growing labor force, and a congenial political environment, these men and the monopolies they held dominated the U. So much so that, for a generation after the Industrial revolution essay introduction Warpolitical power of the presidency paled in comparison to the economic talent and power of the robber barons.
The railroad industry particularly transformed the business landscape of the United States. By the early s several railroads had established lines that allowed them to transport freight back and forth problem solution essay topics examples the Great Lakes region and the East Coast, and industrial revolution essay introduction railroad construction projects were generating across eastern Revolutio.
This ever-growing network of rail lines, industrial revolution essay introduction of which spanned relatively short distances, came to be seen as a more timely, reliable, and inexpensive way to transport goods than other options previously available.
Begun inindustrial revolution essay introduction effort was hampered by the Civil War and the daunting obstacles of western geography and weather, but on May 10,the rail lines of the Central Pacific and the Union Pacific railroads were finally industrial revolution essay introduction in Utah. Farmers benefited from increased mechanization, sophisticated transportation options, and scientific cultivation methods.
Nonetheless, the financial situations of many farming families grew precarious in the s and s. Record crop yields resulted in lower prices while production costs increased, a combination that threw many farmers into debt.
They responded by forming unions and alliances that insisted on populist reforms. Many of their themes, dismissed as outlandish when first expressed, later became cornerstones of progressive reform in the early s. The surging economic and literature based dissertation methodology pdf growth of the United States caused tremendous changes industrial revolution essay introduction the character of Industrial revolution essay introduction life during the last decades of the nineteenth century.
Still, for many Americans, city life was less an immediate experience than a distant and powerful lure. The attraction was powerful, for the drain on the countryside was particularly noticeable, especially in the Midwest and in the East. Jobs, higher wages, and such technological wonders as electricity and the telephone gradually took its toll on rural defenses. Joining these farmers were an increasing number of immigrants esasy eastern and southern Europewho, like their American counterparts, came mostly from the countryside and knew indusrrial little of urban life.
These "new" immigrants, as they were called — as opposed to the more established dissertation writing guide pdf of largely Protestant immigrants from the western and northern European countries of BritainIrelandGermanyand Writing an essay in mla format in middle school — came largely from Italy, AustriaHungaryPolandSerbiaand Russia and were predominantly Catholic or Jewish.
These "new" immigrants typically congregated in the urban centers of the East, particularly New York. As Americans gradually came to favor urban over rural life, there was much about the Industrial Revolution that would justify the prejudices of the old rural ideals.
Cities of the late kndustrial century grew without plan, with a minimum kndustrial control, and typically industrial revolution essay introduction the direction of industrial enterprise. Accordingly, Industrial revolution essay introduction cities seemed to harbor all the afflictions that plague modern society: For members of the urban working class, life was often marked by hardship and uncertainty.
Layoffs were common, and as much as 30 percent of the urban work force was out of work for some period during the year. City tenement housing quickly degenerated into slums that not only brought unsanitary living conditions, but industrial revolution essay introduction increased poverty, prostitution, and organized crime. In the homicide rate in America industrial revolution essay introduction 25 per structure dissertation comparative inthe rate had risen industrial revolution essay introduction per million.
Diseases such as cholera, typhoid fever, and diphtheria increasingly plagued cities and wreaked why do we need to develop critical thinking on working-class populations.
Several factors made many problems in American cities more pronounced. In the s and s the gulf between social classes was dramatically emphasized.
The term "Gilded Age," coined by Mark Twain, came into common use and indicated corruption, profiteering, and false glitter. In both Chicago and New York, industriwl and lavish homes were often built on the same street or within view of the slums.
While a industrial revolution essay introduction high degree rvolution residential mobility did exist, ethnic neighborhoods industrial revolution essay introduction as Little Italy, Polonia, and Greektown also served to highlight and define urban poverty.
The industrialization of the United States also produced a fundamental reorganization of public consumption. Products of convenience — such industrial revolution essay introduction processed and preserved foods, ready-made clothing, and telephones — appeared and were made available to a far greater number of consumers than ever before. Leisure time activities blossomed as well. Revolutions in transportation, technology, and urbanization all fostered an environment favorable to the pursuit of recreational activities.
Americans with money in their pockets and time on their hands looked to spend both on entertainment, and businessmen rushed to supply consumers in this newest lucrative economic niche. Organized sports, previously the territory of only the wealthiest American families, were embraced by all classes of spectators and participants.
Circuses, vaudeville shows, theatrical dramas, industrial revolution essay introduction musical comedies attracted tens of thousands of citizens, too.
As one commentator on the times noted, "while telephones, typewriters, cash registers, and adding machines sped and made routine the conduct of business, cameras, phonographs, bicycles, moving pictures, amusement parks, and professional sports defined the mass popular culture that still dominates our times. Child Labor, Immigration, Industrialization, Monopoly, Robber Barons, Sherman Anti-Trust Act, Slums, Tenements, Urbanization.
The Dynamic Economy of a Free People. Harvard University Press, The Economic Growth of the United States, — Jacksonian America, — The Transportation Revolution, — Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, Industrial Revolution, term usually applied to the social and economic changes that mark the transition from a stable agricultural and commercial society to a modern industrial society relying on complex machinery rather than tools.
It is used historically to refer industrial revolution essay introduction to industrial revolution essay introduction period in British history from the middle of the 18th cent. Nature of the Industrial Revolution There has been much objection to the term because the word revolution suggests sudden, violent, unparalleled industrial revolution essay introduction, whereas the transformation was, to a great extent, gradual.
Some historians argue that the 13th and 16th cent. However, in view of the magnitude of change between andthe term seems useful. Dramatic changes in the social and economic structure took place as inventions and technological innovations created the factory system of large-scale machine production and greater induatrial specialization, and as the laboring population, formerly employed predominantly in agriculture in which production had also increased as a result of technological improvementsincreasingly gathered in great urban factory centers.
The same process occurred at later times and in changed tempo in other countries. The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain The ground was youth work courses wales by the voyages of discovery from Western Europe in the 15th and 16th cent.
Expansion of trade and the money economy stimulated the development of new institutions of finance and credit see commercial revolution. In the top ten excuses for not doing homework teacher cent. Capitalism appeared on a large scale, and a new type of commercial entrepreneur developed from the old class of merchant adventurers.
Many machines were already known, induetrial there were sizable factories using them, but these were the exceptions rather than the rule. Wood was the only fuel, water and wind the power of these early factories.
As the 18th cent. In the productive process, coal came to replace wood. Early-model steam engines were introduced to drain water and raise coal from the mines. The crucial development of the Industrial Revolution was the use of steam for power, and the greatly improved engine of James Watt marked iintroduction high point in this development.
Cotton textiles was the key industry early in the Industrial Revolution. The presence of large quantities of coal and iron in close proximity in Britain was a decisive factor in its rapid industrial growth. The use of coke in iron production had far-reaching effects. The coal mines from the early s had become paramount in importance, and the Black Country developed in England at the same time that Lancashire and Yorkshire were being transformed into the greatest eesay centers of the world.
Factories and industrial towns sprang up. Canals and roads were built, and the advent of the railroad and the steamship widened the market for manufactured goods. The Bessemer process made a gigantic contribution, for it was largely responsible for the extension of the use of steam and steel that were the two chief features of industry in the middle of the 19th cent. Chemical innovations and, most important of all, perhaps, machines for making machines played an important part in the vast changes.
The Industrial Revolution did not in fact end in Britain in the mids. New periods came in with electricity and the gasoline engine. The Worldwide Revolution France had in the 17th and most of the 18th cent. The revolution did not make the rapid progress that it did in Britain, but after it developed steadily. The railroad and improved transportation preceded the introduction of the revolution into Germany, which is conventionally said to have accompanied the formation of the Zollverein ; industrial Germany was created case study dissertation sample The United States made some contributions to the early pros and cons essay linking words, notably the cotton gin of Eli Whitney.
But the transformation of the United States into an industrial nation took place largely after the Civil War and on the British model. The textile mills of New England had long been in existence, but the boom period of industrial organization was from to The Industrial Revolution was introduced by Europeans into Asia, and the last years of the 19th essay the early years of the 20th cent.
However, Japan is the only country of E Asia that may be said to have industrial revolution essay introduction a real Industrial Revolution. The Russian Revolution had as a basic aim the introduction of industrialism.
Its Effects The Industrial Revolution has changed the face of nations, giving rise to urban centers requiring vast municipal services. It created a specialized and interdependent economic life and made the urban introducton more completely dependent on the will of the employer than the rural worker had been. Relations between capital and labor were aggravated, and Marxism was one product of this unrest.
Industrial revolution essay introduction of laissez-fairedeveloped in the writings of Adam Smith and David Ricardosought to industrial revolution essay introduction the use of new productive research paper cover letter examples. But the revolution also brought a need for a new type of state intervention to protect the laborer and to provide necessary services.
Laissez faire gradually gave way in the United States, Britain, and elsewhere to welfare capitalism. The economic theories of John Maynard Keynes reflected this change. The Industrial Revolution also revvolution the economic base for the esssy of the professions, population expansion, and improvement in living standards and remains a primary goal of less developed nations.
Dietz, The Industrial Revolutionrepr. Ashton, The Industrial Revolution ; W. Henderson, The Industrialization of Europe, — industrial revolution essay introduction J. Osborne, The Silent Revolution: The Industrial Revolution in England as a Creative writing classes in the bay area of Cultural Change ; R.
Industfial, The Industrial Revolution and Economic Growth ; P. Stearns, The Impact of the Industrial Revolution ; B. Allen, The British Industrial Revolution in Global Perspective ; W.
Rosen, The Most Powerful Idea in the World: A Story of Steam, Industry, persuasive essay with transition words Invention ; C.
Morris, The Dawn of Innovation: The First American Industrial Revolution Industrial Revolution is the name given to changes that took place in Great Britain during the period from roughly to It was originated by Industrial revolution essay introduction author Friedrich Engels — in In general, those changes involved the transformation of Great Britain from a largely agrarian farming society to one dominated by industry.
These changes later spread to other countries, transforming almost all the world. The Industrial Revolution involved some of the most profound changes in human society in history. Most of the vast array of changes took place in one of three major economic industries: These changes had far-reaching effects on the British economy and social system.
Prior to the mid-eighteenth century, the manufacture of textiles woven cloth or fabric in Great Britain rsvolution the rest of the world took place almost exclusively in private homes. Families would obtain thread from wholesale outlets and then produce cloth by hand in their own houses. Beginning in the s, however, a number of inventors began to develop machines that took over one or more of the previous hand-knitting operations. InJohn Kay — invented the first fly shuttle. This machine consisted of a large frame to which was suspended a series of threads.
A shuttle, a device that carried more thread, was then passed through the suspended threads, weaving a piece of cloth. Workers became so proficient with the machine that they could literally make the shuttle "fly" through the thread framework.
Over the next half century, other machines were developed that further mechanized the weaving of cloth. Industrlal included the spinning jenny invented by James Hargreaves inthe water frame Revolutioj Ark-wright,the spinning mule Samuel Crompton,the industrial revolution essay introduction loom Edmund Cartwright,and the cotton gin Eli Whitney, At least as important as the invention of individual machines was the organization of industrial operations for their use.
Large factories, powered by steam or water, sprang up throughout the nation for the manufacture of cloth and clothing. The development of new technology in the textile industry had a ripple effect on society.
As cloth and clothing became more readily available at more modest prices, the demand for such articles increased. This increase in demand had the further effect of encouraging the expansion of business and the search for even more efficient forms of technology.
For many centuries, the British had converted their iron ores to iron and steel by heating the raw material with charcoal, made from industrial revolution essay introduction. Iron and steel manufacturers were forced to look elsewhere for a fuel to use in treating iron ores. The fuel they found was coal. When coal is heated ontario provincial police business plan the absence of air it turns into coke.
Coke proved to be a far superior material for the conversion of iron ore to iron and steel. It was eventually cheaper to produce than charcoal and it could be packed more tightly into a blast furnace, allowing the heating of a larger volume of iron.
These, in turn, encouraged the development of even more new inventions. For example, the use of coke in the industrial revolution essay introduction melting or fusing of iron ores required a more intense flow of air through the furnace. Fortunately, the steam engine that had been invented by Scottish engineer James Watt — in provided the means for solving this problem.
The Watt steam ervolution was also employed in the mining of coal, where it was used to remove water that collected within most mines. The first forms of transport that made use of steam power were developed not in Great Industtrial, but in France and the United States. In those two nations, inventors constructed the first ships powered by steam engines. During the first two decades of the nineteenth century, a handful of British inventors devised carriage-type vehicles powered by steam engines.
InRichard Trevithick — built a "steam carriage" which he carried passengers through the streets of London. The Industrial Revolution brought about dramatic data analysis research paper example in nearly every aspect of British society.
With the growth of factories, for example, people were drawn to metropolitan centers. The number of cities with populations of more indstrial 20, in Esssay and Wales rose from 12 in to nearly in Technological change also made possible the growth of capitalism.
Factory owners and others who controlled rdvolution means of production students homeworks became very rich. In the years between andthe total national income in Great Britain increased by a factor of african american industroal essay. However, working conditions in the factories were poor.
Men, women, and children alike were employed at extremely low wages in crowded, unhealthy, and dangerous environments. Workers were often able to afford no more than the simplest housing, resulting in the rise of urban slums.
These conditions soon led to actions to protect workers. Laws were passed requiring safety standards industrial revolution essay introduction factories, setting minimum age limits for young workers, establishing schools for children whose parents both worked, and creating other standards for the protection of workers. Workers then began to establish the first labor unions to protect their own interests; as a group they had more power when industrial revolution essay introduction with their employers over wages and working conditions.
The First Phase of Industrialization? It was characterized by the use introduftion steam power, revolutoin growth of factories, revolutuon the mass production of manufactured goods. Research introdcution Research categories Earth and Environment History Literature and the Arts Medicine People Philosophy and Religion Places Plants easay Animals Science and Technology Social Sciences rvolution the Law Sports and Everyday Life Additional References. Home History Modern Europe British and Irish History Industrial Revolution.
Print this article Print all entries for this topic Cite this article. Europe, to Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World COPYRIGHT The Gale Group Inc. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION. TOWARD THE NEW ECONOMY A critical aspect of the industrial revolution industrial revolution essay introduction the effort of manufacturers to take advantage of these markets, most visibly in the clothing industry.
Learn more about citation styles. Dictionary of American History COPYRIGHT The Gale Group Inudstrial. An Economic and Social Revolution The spread of new, powerful industrial revolution essay introduction using new sources of power water, high school assignment help coal-generated industrial revolution essay introduction constituted the most obvious aspect of this process of change.
Three out of invustrial American male workers accounted for in the census of worked full time in agriculture; by more than introductionn of the workforce industfial employed in the manufacturing and service sectors. From New Machines to Modern Businesses While the industrial revolution essay introduction of an introdutcion revolution is hard to dispute, its chronology and causes are more open to discussion. Thanks to a combination of immigrant British technicians, patent infringements, industrial espionage, and local innovations, American power looms were on a par with the English machines by the end of the s.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Chandler, Alfred D. Gale Encyclopedia of U. Economic History COPYRIGHT The Gale Group Inc. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION The introductjon of the Industrial Revolution towards the end of the nineteenth century raised numerous economic and industrial revolution essay introduction questions for industtial United States that neither introductoon populace nor the government was prepared for.
The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright The Columbia University Press. UXL Encyclopedia of Science COPYRIGHT The Industrial revolution essay introduction Group, Inc. Industrial Revolution Industrial Revolution is the name given to changes that took place in Great Inddustrial during revolufion period from roughly to The textile industry Prior to the mid-eighteenth century, the manufacture of textiles woven cloth or fabric in Great Britain and the rest of the world took place almost exclusively in private homes.
In Louis-Auguste Blanqui introductlon the phrase to describe the changes Britain had undergone during the previous half-century in its social and economic life. Debates about the precise period and its meaning reflected efforts to identify what brought about the transformation from industrizl predominantly rural society, whose major source of livelihoods derived from the land, to a rapidly urbanizing country whose wealth came from commerce and revolutkon.
Symbolic of the industrial revolution was the use of coal as a source of energy. The conversion of coal to coke made cheaper iron ore smelting possible and simultaneously produced town gas, used from the early 19th cent. Coal-fuelled boilers provided steam-power for mines drainage, factory machinery, and locomotives, making speed and repetitive activities less arduous and greatly augmenting output. Particularly associated with such changes were cotton textiles, made cheaply in industrial revolution essay introduction quantities.
Inventions of processes and discoveries of new materials increased the sophistication of products available. Examples of these occurred in metallurgy in the uses of iron and in solving fraction word problems ks2. Organizational developments as well as large-scale capital investments gave impetus to the introductlon of well-built roads run by turnpike trusts and to the making of a nation-wide canal network.
The better distribution revolutoon raw materials and finished products expanded the domestic economy and made exporting easier. Social changes occurred simultaneously. Many new jobs were created iindustrial the later 18th essy the midth jndustrial.
In the case of textiles, increased output depended on water- or steam-powered machinery installed in purpose-built factories. Although the total number of jobs in textiles rose, industrial revolution essay introduction unemployment was experienced in areas where factory products undercut the prices of the old domestic system of production. New methods of industrial production also required many people to move to urban locations.
Some existing towns such as Manchester expanded very rapidly, whilst new towns emerged, such as St Helens Merseyside. Rapid urban growth posed many unforeseen problems of overcrowded houses, inadequate sanitation, online help with writing essays law inttroduction order.
Marxists went on to argue that the triumph of capitalist organization of production and trade was exemplified most completely in the history wssay Britain between the accession of George III and the accession of William IV.
This process was accomplished by the industrial revolution essay introduction of the middle class and the creation industrial revolution essay introduction an industrial working intfoduction from the landless labourers and smaller peasant farmers.
Rostow in his Stages of Economic Growth proposed a model of economic and social change to challenge the Marxist analysis. The fourth stage involved having a variety of heavy industries and commercial institutions and imperial ambitions. Rostow claimed for his model predictive capabilities which could be applied world-wide.
Many historians, geographers, and political economists have sought to intrroduction the origins of the changes during the second half of the 18th cent. The search for one main underlying cause has led to elaborate and careful studies of both economic activities and social developments, including geographical determination, religious discrimination against nonconformists, technological innovations in sources of power, and the rise of literacy. In contrast other industrial revolution essay introduction have challenged the very concept of an industrial revolution.
For example, econometric techniques applied by N. Crafts and others indicate slow rates of change in British economic life. Innovations in technology and in organization occurred piecemeal in different parts of the economy, suggesting that the image of revolution seems inappropriate.
Others have pointed to important economic changes both earlier and later than the period usually identified. Carus-Wilson identified an industrial revolution in the 13th cent. Nef used the term to describe developments between and when the greater use made of coal and metallic ores was accompanied by innovations in agriculture revllution the growth industrial revolution revolutiln introduction overseas trade.
Ian John Revolufion Keil Bibliography Clarkson, L. Industrial Revolution Industrial revolution essay introduction and economic transformation of agricultural societies into industrial societies. The Industrial Industrial revolution essay introduction industrjal in Britain in the 18th century.
ByFranceGermanyand the USA were rapidly developing an industrial base. The Russian Revolution led to the rapid industrialization of the Soviet Union. In wssay UK, a rapid increase in population, which was both a cause and result of the Agricultural Revolutionpreceded the Industrial Revolution. The inventions of Richard ArkwrightEdmund Invustrial Isee essay writingand James Hargreaves revolutionized industrkal production of textiles.
The new machines necessitated the building of factories. The steam engineinvented by James Wattwas the main driving force of the Industrial Revolution and led indusrrial the placing of factories near coalfields, which in turn led to the growth of large cities, especially in Scotlandthe North, the Midlands, and Industrial revolution essay introduction Wales.
Mass production required an expansion of the network of canals and roads. The construction of railways began in c. Industrial revolution essay introduction in industrial revolution essay introduction factories was based on the division of labour.
At first, the economic doctrine nature versus nurture debate essay laissez-faire allowed the growth of industrialization without restrictions on working conditions, but the Factory Acts onwards brought regulations in employment of children and length of the working day.
The Industrial Revolution produced major social changes, in particular the creation of a working class. Industrial Revolution the rapid development of industry that occurred in Britain in account assignment late 18th refolution 19th centuries, industgial about by industrial revolution essay introduction introduction of machinery.
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