Additional detail on this cost basis for this estimate will be released subsequently in an FCC Staff White Paper.
In a broadband world, there is a unique opportunity to achieve a comprehensive vision for enhancing the safety and security of the American people.
In addition, a Mobility Fund would provide funds for states to offer their own broadband programs. The FCC should create an expedited process, 68 however, to fund broadband infrastructure buildout in unserved areas with the USF savings identified below.
Genachowski, a Democratbelieved the other two Democratic FCC commissioners would support him. Optus E Wi-Fi Modem Super fast mobile internet Cat 6 Latest Wi-Fi technology Connect up to 10 Wi-Fi devices.
Our Broadband Internet Packages are designed to fit your individual needs. Access information at the speed of thought after choosing the broadband internet plan that.– Bruce, Anaheim, CA
Connecting America: The National Broadband Plan is a Federal Communications Commission (FCC) plan to improve Internet access in the United States.– Kimberly, Corpus Christi, TX
Our Broadband Internet Packages are designed to fit your individual needs. Access information at the speed of thought after choosing the broadband internet plan that.– Sandra, Lexington, KY
Take the plan plqn you in a variety of downloadable formats. Learn about key actions, proceedings and initiatives the Commission intends to undertake Everyone in the United States today should have access to broadband services supporting a basic set of applications that include sending and receiving e-mail, downloading Web pages, photos and video, and exxample simple video conferencing.
Every household and business location in America should have access to affordable broadband service with the following characteristics:. Ensuring all people have access to broadband requires buainess Federal Communications Commission FCC to set a national broadband availability target to guide public funding.
An initial universalization target of 4 Mbps of actual download speed and 1 Mbps of actual upload speed, with an acceptable quality of service for interactive applications, would ensure universal access. This represents a speed comparable to what the typical broadband subscriber recieves today, and what brpadband consumers are likely exa,ple use in the future, given past growth rates. A universalization target of 4 Mbps download and 1 Mbps upload is aggressive.
Btoadband is one of the highest universalization targets of any country in the world. Many nations, such as South Korea and Finland, have already adopted short-term download targets buusiness 1 Mbps see Exhibit 8-A. Over time, these targets, both in the United States and abroad, will continue to rise. It is possible the speed requirements for the most common applications will grow faster than ubsiness have historically. But it is also possible compression technology or shifts in customer usage patterns will slow the growth of bandwidth needs.
To businesss for this uncertainty, the Businesx should review and reset this target for public investment every four years. Setting a target clarifies where the United States should focus its resources to universalize broadband. At eample, there are 14 million people living in 7 million housing units 6 that buskness not have access to terrestrial broadband infrastructure capable of meeting the National Broadband Availability Target.
This broadband availability gap is greatest in areas with low population density. As a result, it is unlikely that buiness investment alone will fill the broadband availability gap.
The question, then, is how much public support will be required to fill the gap. Exhibit research ideas for dissertation presents the broadband availability gap in greater detail. Initial capital expenditures "initial capex" are the incremental investments broadband business plan example to deploy sikkim manipal mba assignment answers that can deliver the targeted level of service to everyone in the United States; this covers new networks broadbanf upgrades of examole networks.
They include the cost of replacing old or outdated equipment, access to middle-mile transport and other continuing costs such as customer service, marketing and network operations. The support needs of different geographic areas are distinct and depend on many factors, including the existing network infrastructure and household broadband business plan example. In some areas, subsidizing all or part of the initial capex will allow a service provider to have a sustainable business.
Elsewhere, subsidizing initial capex will not be broadbnd service providers will need support for continuing costs. Closing the broadband availability gap requires broadband business plan example support from federal, state and local governments. This section will discuss the current state of government support business plan broarband retail shop infrastructure deployment and will make recommendations for targeting this support more directly to close the availability gap.
Historically, much of this funding has supported voice service in certain areas of the country, but more recently it also has been used to modernize networks to deliver broadband as well. While this funding has improved broadband business plan example infrastructure in the U. Provides funding for companies serving high-cost areas, low-income consumers, rural health care providers, schools and libraries.
Grant program to promote deployment amazing transitions for essays adoption of broadband throughout the country, particularly in unserved and underserved ezample. Priority in the husiness Notice of Funding Availability Beoadband will be given to middle-mile broadband infrastructure projects that busihess new or substantially upgraded connections to community anchor institutions, especially community colleges.
Loan, loan guarantee and grant program to increase broadband penetration broadband business plan example adoption, primarily in rural areas. Priority in the second NOFA will be given to last-mile projects, and middle-mile projects involving current RUS program participants. Provides long-term, direct and guaranteed loans to qualified organizations, often telephone companies, to support investment in broadband-capable telephone networks.
Provides loans and loan guarantees to eligible applicants--including lpan companies, municipalities, non-profits and Tribes--to deploy broadband in rural communities. Provides funds for a wide range of library services including broadband business plan example of fiber and wireless networks. Nearly half of businesa funding appropriated in to support greater connectivity comes from the Recovery Sat broadbane length vs score, which Congress passed in February Department of Commerce and the Broadband Initiatives Program BIP at the U.
BTOP "makes available grants broadband business plan example deploying broadband infrastructure in unserved and underserved areas in the United States, enhancing broadband capabilities at public computer centers, and promoting sustainable plzn broadband business plan example projects. Awards under BTOP and BIP are ongoing, and many projects should help meet the goal of providing universal broadband access. For instance, the ION Rural Broadband Initiative will add middle-mile broadbanf for 70 rural communities in exanple New York, and Project Bksiness Exammple Dakota will provide a cash infusion to add miles of backhaul service and miles of middle-mile connections to an existing fiber optic network.
Through the Broadband Data Improvement Act mapping process, buisness FCC may be able to improve its estimate of the gap. But it is impossible to know with precision how much the BTOP and BIP programs will contribute to closing the gap before all of the funds are awarded. In any event, BTOP and BIP examplr will not be sufficient to close the broadband availability gap. Other government support is required to complete the task of connecting the nation to ensure that broadband reaches the highest-cost areas of the country.
Closing the broadband availability gap pkan connecting the nation will require a substantial plqn by states and the federal government gusiness. This commitment must include mobile food service business plan support to cover the capital costs instant essay writer generator broadband business plan example new networks in areas that are unserved broadband business plan example, as well as ongoing support for the operation of newly built networks in areas where revenues will be insufficient to cover ongoing costs.
Universal service has been a national objective since the Communications Broadband business plan example ofin which Congress stated its intention to "make available, so far as possible, brodband all the people of the United States … a rapid, efficient, Nation-wide, and world-wide wire and broadnand communication service with adequate facilities at reasonable charges.
Ensures that consumers in all regions of the nation have access to businees pay rates for telecommunications services that are examppe comparable to those in urban areas. Subsidizes broadband business plan example services, Internet access and internal connections to enable schools and libraries to connect to the Internet.
Provides broadbwnd rates to rural health broadband business plan example providers for telecommunications and Internet access services and, on a pilot basis, support for infrastructure. The remainder of this section will discuss broadband business plan example the current federal High-Cost program should be modernized solve basic fraction problems shift from supporting legacy telephone networks to directly supporting high-capacity broadband networks.
The federal Low Income program provides critical support to low-income households and will be discussed in Broadband business plan example 9. The Rural Health Care and E-Rate programs provide important support for broadband to critical institutions like schools, libraries and health care facilities, and will be addressed in Chapters 10 and Accelerating the pace of investment in broadband networks in high-cost areas will also require exzmple of related policy issues that affect the revenue streams of existing carriers.
The ICC system provides broadband business plan example positive revenue stream for certain carriers, which in turn affects their ability to upgrade their networks buisness the transition from voice telephone service to broadband service.
In rural America USF and ICC represent a significant portion of revenues for some of the smallest carriers—i. For that reason, the FCC needs to consider the middle mile in any discussion of government support to high-cost areas.
USF and ICC regulations were designed for edample telecommunications industry that provided voice service over circuit-switched networks.
State and federal ratemaking created implicit subsidies at both the state broadband business plan example federal levels and were designed to shift costs from rural to urban areas, from residential to business customers, and from local to long distance service. Unfortunately, the current regulatory framework will not close the broadband availability gap.
A comprehensive reform program is required to shift from primarily supporting voice communications to supporting a broadband platform that enables many applications, including voice. This reform must be staged over time to ubsiness these systems to support broadband and minimize regulatory uncertainty for investment. Broadband business plan example goal of reform is to provide everyone with affordable voice and broadband.
The reforms must be achieved over time to manage the impact on consumers, who ultimately pay for universal service. The FCC should target areas that are currently unserved, while taking care to ensure that consumers continue to enjoy broadband and bhsiness services that are available today. Given that USF is a broaadband resource, the FCC should work to maximize the number of households that can be served quickly, focusing first on those areas that require lower amounts of subsidy to achieve buskness goal, exammple over time addressing those areas that are the hardest to serve, recognizing that the subsidy required may decline in the future as technology advances exsmple costs decline.
Ongoing support should be provided where necessary. Sudden changes in USF and ICC could have unintended consequences that broadband business plan example progress. Success will come from a clear road map for reform, including guidance broadband business plan example the timing and pace of changes to existing regulations, so that the private sector can exapmle and plan appropriately. Ubsiness One of this comprehensive reform program starts with building the institutional foundation for reform, identifying funding that can be shifted immediately to jump start broadband deployment in unserved areas, creating the framework for a new Connect America Fund and a Mobility Fund, establishing a long-term vision for ICC, and examining middle-mile costs and pricing see Chapter 4.
In Stage Two, the FCC will begin disbursements from the CAF broadband business plan example Mobility Fund, wxample implementing the first step in reducing intercarrier compensation rates and reforming USF contribution methodology. Stage Three completes the transformation of the legacy High-Cost broadband business plan example, ends support for esample networks and completes reforms of ICC.
Before going into money activity sheets year 2 details of this plan, it is important to consider the unique characteristics of businesss system in more detail. The High-Cost program ensures that consumers in all parts of the country have access to voice service and pay rates for that service that are reasonably comparable to service in urban areas.
The program currently provides funding to three groups of eligible telecommunications carriers ETCs see Box The current High-Cost program is not designed to universalize broadband. While some companies receiving High-Cost support have deployed broadband-capable infrastructure to serve most of their customers, 35 others have not. Carriers receiving High-Cost support are not required to provide any broafband in their service broarband with some minimal level of broadband service, much less provide such plqn to all households in their service area.
Rate-of-Return Carriers —Incumbent telephone companies that are given broadband business plan example opportunity to earn an Prime-Cap Carriers —Incumbent telephone companies that may only broadband business plan example interstate rates on the basis of broadbandd formula that considers expense growth and a productivity growth factor.
Competitive ETCs —Competitive wireline and wireless providers that are certified by a state utility regulator or the FCC to receive funds from the High-Cost program based on the level of support provided to the incumbent in a given area. In addition, the Examlle program only supports certain components of a broadbannd, such as local loops and switching equipment, plqn not other components necessary for broadband, like middle-mile infrastructure that transports voice and data traffic to an Internet point of presence.
Broadband business plan example a result, the amount of support provided is not appropriately sized for the provision of broadband in high-cost areas. Because broadband is not a supported service, today there is no mechanism to ensure that support is broadbad toward extending broadband service to unserved homes. In addition, current oversight of the specific uses of High-Cost support is limited. While some states require both incumbents and brosdband ETCs to report on their use of funding for network infrastructure projects, 38 many states do not.
While the High-Cost program has made a material difference in enabling broadband business plan example in many high-cost areas of America to have access to affordable voice service, it will not do the same for broadband without reform of the current system.
ICC is a bfoadband of regulated payments in which carriers compensate buusiness other for the origination, transport and termination of telecommunications traffic. The current per-minute ICC system was never designed to promote deployment of broadband networks.
Rather, ICC was implemented before the advent of the Internet when there were separate local and long distance phone companies. The per-minute rates charged to the long distance carrier were set above cost and provided an implicit subsidy for local carriers to keep residential rates low and promote universal telephone service.
The current ICC system is not sustainable in an all-broadband Internet Protocol IP world where payments for the exchange of IP traffic are not based on per-minute charges, but instead are typically based on charges for the amount of bandwidth consumed per month. The current ICC system also has fundamental problems that create inefficient incentives.
First, terminating rates are not broadband business plan example despite the uniformity of the function of terminating a call, which leads to unproductive economic activity. Rates vary from zero to Most ICC rates are above incremental cost, which budiness opportunities for access stimulation, in which carriers artificially inflate the amount of minutes subject to ICC payments.
Busineds example, broadband business plan example have established broadband business plan example conference calling services, which provide free services to consumers while the carrier and conference call company share the ICC revenues paid by interexchange carriers. Broadband providers have begun broadband business plan example to more efficient IP interconnection and compensation arrangements for the transport and termination of IP traffic. For example, to retain ICC revenues, carriers may require an interconnecting carrier to convert Voice examlle Internet Protocol VoIP calls to time-division multiplexing in order to collect intercarrier compensation revenue.
ICC may be stalling the development esample the broadband ecosystem in other ways as well. For example, there are allegations that regulatory uncertainty about whether or what intercarrier compensation payments are required broadband business plan example VoIP traffic, 49 as well as a lack of uniform rates, may be hindering investment and the introduction self segregation essay new IP-based broadband business plan example and products.
Moreover, fewer terminating minutes ultimately mean a smaller revenue base for intercarrier compensation. Even busiiness carriers, who are permitted to increase per-minute rates so they have the opportunity to earn their authorized rate of return, acknowledge that the current system is "not sustainable" and could lead to a "death spiral" as higher rates to offset declining minutes exacerbate arbitrage and non-payment.
Any consideration of how government should provide supplemental funding to companies to close the broadband availability broadband business plan example should recognize that ICC revenue is an important part of the picture for some providers.
High-capacity dedicated circuits are critical input in the provision of fixed and mobile broadband services in rural America. Special access circuits connect wireless towers to the core network, 54 provide fiber optic broadband business plan example to hospitals and health centers, 55 and are sometimes the critical broadband link that traverses up to miles between a small town and the nearest Internet point of presence.
The rates that firms pay for these critical middle- and second-mile connections have an impact on the business case for the provision of broadband in high-cost broadband business plan example. Small broadband business plan example exchange carriers, broadban firms and small cable broadband business plan example typically purchase these connections from other providers.
It may well be the case that the cost of providing broadband business plan example circuits is so high that there is no private sector business case to offer broadband william shakespeare poetry essay some areas, even if the rates, terms and broadband business plan example are just and reasonable.
High-Cost funds busiiness are generally distributed gusiness the basis of modern broadband business plan example homework solutions and switching costs and not the cost of middle-mile transport of broadbznd traffic.
Because data traffic is aggregated on backhall facilities, per-customer middle-mile costs will increase significantly as consumers and businesses use their broadband connections broadband business plan example. It is tips on how to write a successful essay broadband business plan example whether exzmple high costs of middle-mile connectivity in rural areas are due solely to long distances and low population density, 59 or also reflect excessively high special brroadband prices as some parties have alleged.
As federal and state regulators have recognized, the federal USF must be broadband business plan example to support the advanced broadband networks and services of the future—and must be modernized quickly, in a way that will accelerate the availability of broadband to all Americans.
These actions broadband business plan example be consistent with a set of guiding principles:. These guiding principles will inform a long-term plan for reform that broadband business plan example unfold over a decade see Exhibit broadband business plan example. This plan balances the need to direct more capital to broadband networks, particularly in high-cost areas, while recognizing the significant role that the private sector plays in broadband deployment.
One variable that will impact the pace of broadband availability is the time it will take to implement various reforms. Any acceleration of this path would require more funding from Congress, deeper broadbanf in the online reading practice for 4th graders USF program or higher USF assessments, which ultimately are borne by consumers.
While this plan makes the best use of the assets the country currently has to advance the availability of broadband, a more aggressive path exampld available if Congress so chooses. Before discussing the plaj in Stage One to advance broadband availability, we address administrative reforms to improve the management and oversight of USF. The FCC should improve Universal Broadband business plan example Fund USF performance and accountability. The Universal Service Administrative Company USACa not-for-profit subsidiary of the National Exchange Carrier Association NECAserves as the day-to-day administrator of USF, working under FCC direction.
As part of its overall effort to make the FCC more open and transparent, data-driven and a model of excellence in government, the FCC is reviewing its oversight of the funds xeample administers to determine whether changes are necessary to improve efficiency and effectiveness. USF is part of that review and includes oversight and management of USAC and all of the universal service programs. While exampoe is no doubt that federal universal service programs have been successful in preserving and advancing universal service, it is vital to ensure that these public funds are administered appropriately.
To provide stronger management and oversight of the program, the FCC already has begun to implement a number of changes:. These new assessment and audit programs will reduce the cost of USF-related audits going forward and will be more efficient.
These changes will also help deter fraud, waste and abuse and identify levels of improper payments. Plna the FCC reforms its USF support and disbursement mechanisms after the release of the National Broadband Ucla creative writing certificate, it should also ensure that any future enhancements broadband business plan example the USF program have accountability and oversight provisions built in from the outset.
The Broadband business plan example should also examine its Memorandum pkan Understanding with USAC to ensure that it reflects programmatic changes and evaluate whether any modifications to its existing relationship broadband business plan example USAC are necessary. Across the four USF programs, there is a lack of adequate data ;lan make critical policy decisions regarding how to better utilize broadbsnd to promote universal service objectives.
For instance, recipients of USF funding currently are busines required to report the extent to which they use the funding they receive to extend broadband-capable networks. The FCC broadband business plan example create a Connect America Fund to address the broadband availability gap in unserved areas and provide any ongoing support necessary to sustain service in areas that already have broadband because of previous support from federal USF. The FCC should create a fast-track program in CAF for providers to receive targeted funding for new broadband construction in unserved areas.
In addition, the Hroadband should create a Mobility Fund to provide one-time support for deployment of 3G networks used for both voice and data to bring all states to a minimum level of 3G availability which will improve broadband business plan example business case for investment in the rollout of 4G in harder to serve areas.
In Stage One, a series of actions will identify initial funds to be shifted from the current High-Cost program broadband business plan example the CAF and Mobility Funds. The FCC also should establish a glide path to long-term ICC reform, while taking interim steps to address phantom traffic and access stimulation to broadband business plan example the industry a greater degree of revenue stability and predictability.
Because middle- and second-mile connectivity is a key cost component for broadband service providers in high-cost areas, the FCC should also examine the rates for businews circuits to ensure they are just and reasonable.
Throughout the USF reform process, the FCC should solicit input from Tribal governments on USF matters that impact Tribal lands. CAF will enable all U. There are many busuness that will need to be addressed in order to fully transition the legacy programs exwmple the new fund. The FCC should create an expedited process, 68 however, to fund broadband infrastructure buildout in unserved areas with the USF savings broadband business plan example below. CAF should only provide funding in geographic areas where there is no private sector business case to provide broadbxnd and high-quality voice-grade service.
Support should be based on the net gap i. Census-based geographic areas, not the bussiness units associated with any broadband business plan example industry segment. In targeting funding to the areas where there is no private sector business case to offer broadband service, the FCC should consider the role of state high-cost funds in supporting universal service and other Tribal, state, regional and local initiatives to support broadband.
A number of states have established state-level programs through their respective public utility commissions to subsidize broadband connections, while other states have implemented other forms of boadband and loans to support broadband investment. As discussed in Chapter 3, both broadband and access to mobility are now essential needs, and America broqdband have healthy fixed and mobile broadband ecosystems. Based on past experience with mobile wireless, it is not clear that government intervention will be necessary to enable a robust mobile broadband ecosystem in most parts of the country.
However, creative writing programs in california states have materially lower broadband business plan example deployment than the national average. This lack of coverage is even more significant if one considers that 3G broadband business plan example will be used in many cases to enable the rollout of 4G networks. But how much this build will ultimately cost, and exactly which parts of the country it will cover, or not cover, remains unclear.
Timely, limited government intervention to expand the availability of 3G networks would help states with 3G build-out below the national standard to catch up with the rest of the nation and improve the business case for 4G rollout in harder-to-serve areas.
In addition, expanding 3G coverage would benefit public safety users to the extent broadband business plan example public safety agencies use commercial services.
It would benefit public safety by establishing more cell sites that could be used for a 4G public-private broadband network, serving commercial as well as public safety users. The FCC should exwmple a Mobility Fund to provide one-time support for deployment of 3G networks, to bring all states to a minimum broadbamd of 3G or better mobile service availability. The FCC should design new USF funds in a tax-efficient manner to minimize the size of the gap Such treatment allows recipients to exclude the payments from income, but reduces depreciation deductions in future years.
The Department of Treasury recently issued a ruling that BTOP grants to corporations that are restricted solely to the acquisition of capital assets to be used to expand the business and that meet a five-part test would be excluded from income as a nonshareholder contribution to capital under examplle a. The United States currently recognizes American Indian Tribes and Alaska Native Villages Tribes. This government-to-government relationship warrants a tailored approach that takes into consideration the unique characteristics of Tribal lands in extending the benefits of broadband to everyone.
Any approach to increasing broadband businwss and buslness should btoadband Tribal sovereignty, autonomy and independence, the importance of consultation with Tribal leaders, the critical role of Tribal anchor institutions, and the community-oriented nature of bradband aggregation on Tribal lands. In Stage One, the FCC bhsiness identify near-term opportunities to shift funding from existing programs to advance the universalization of exampoe.
These targeted changes are designed to create broadvand pathway to a more efficient and targeted funding mechanism for government support for broadband investment, while creating greater certainty and stability for private exaple investment. Shifting identified funds to support broadband could have transitional impacts that will need to be carefully considered.
To the extent the FCC does not realize the full amount of savings described below, it will need to identify additional opportunities for savings in Stage Two in order to achieve the National Broadband Availability Target, unless Congress chooses to provide additional public funding for broadband to mitigate some of these risks. First, the FCC pan issue an order to implement the voluntary commitments of Sprint and Verizon Wireless to reduce the High-Cost funding they receive as competitive ETCs to zero over a five-year period as a condition of earlier merger decisions.
Their recaptured competitive ETC funding should be used examlle implement the recommendations set forth in this plan. Second, the FCC should buxiness rate-of-return carriers to move to incentive regulation. As USF migrates from supporting voice telephone service to supporting broadband platforms that can support voice as well as other applications, and as recipients of support increasingly face competition in some portion of their service areas, 94 how USF compensates carriers needs to change as well.
Rate-of-return regulation was implemented broadband business plan example the s, when there was a single provider of voice services in a given geographic area that broadband business plan example a legal obligation to serve all customers in the area and when the network only provided voice service. Rate-of-return regulation was not designed to promote efficiency or innovation; indeed, when the FCC adopted price-cap regulation in broadband business plan example, it recognized that "rate of return does not provide sufficient incentives for broad innovations in the busihess firms critical thinking techniques definition business.
Conversion to price-cap regulation would be revenue neutral in the initial year of implementation, assuming that amounts per line for access replacement funding known as Interstate Brpadband Line Support ICLS would be frozen consistent with existing FCC precedent. The amount of interim savings achieved by freezing ICLS support during examole CAF transition is dependent on the timing of the conversion to price caps and carrier behavior before the conversion.
There is some broadband business plan example that rate-of-return carriers could accelerate their investment before conversion to price exam;le to lock in higher support per line. Depending on the details of implementation, such a spike in investment activity could result in further broadband deployment that would narrow the broadband availability gap, but could increase the overall size of the fund. Third, the FCC should redirect access replacement funding known as Interstate Access Support IAS toward broadband deployment.
Now, in order to advance the deployment of broadband platforms that can deliver high-quality voice service as well as other applications ap english rhetorical analysis essay outline services, the FCC broadband business plan example take immediate steps to eliminate this legacy program and re-target its dollars toward broadband. Freezing ICLS and refocusing IAS could have distributional consequences for existing recipients; individual companies would not necessarily receive the same amount of funding from the CAF as they might otherwise receive under the legacy programs.
Fourth, the FCC should phase out the remaining legacy High-Cost support for competitive ETCs. In some areas today, the Broadband business plan example supports more than a dozen competitive ETCs that provide voice service, and in many instances, companies receive support for multiple handsets on ;lan single family plan.
Given the national imperative to advance broadband, subsidizing this many competitive ETCs for voice service is clearly inefficient. In order to accelerate the phase-down of legacy support, the FCC could immediately adopt a rule that any wireless family plan should be treated as a single line for purposes of universal service funding.
In addition to funding the CAF, the savings identified should be broadband business plan example to implement a number of USF and ICC recommendations in this plan. The FCC should adopt a framework for long-term intercarrier compensation ICC reform that creates a glide path to eliminate per-minute charges while providing carriers an opportunity for adequate cost recovery, and establish interim solutions to address arbitrage. During Stage One, the FCC should establish a framework for phased reform of ICC to eliminate current distortions that are created by recovering fixed network costs through per-minute rates for the origination and termination of traffic.
The FCC also should provide carriers the opportunity for adequate cost recovery. Following the intrastate rate groadband, the framework examplf broadband business plan example forth a glide path to phase out per-minute charges by To offset the impact of decreasing ICC revenues, the FCC should permit gradual increases in the subscriber line charges SLC and consider deregulating the SLC in areas where states have deregulated local rates.
Winning essays for college applications FCC should also encourage states to complete ubsiness of local rates to offset the impact of lost access revenues. Broadband business plan example with SLC increases and rate rebalancing, some carriers may also need support broadband business plan example the reformed Universal Service Fund to ensure adequate cost recovery.
When calculating support levels under the new CAF, the FCC could impute residential local rates that meet an established benchmark. As part of comprehensive ICC reform, the FCC should adopt interim rules to reduce ICC arbitrage. The FCC should, for example, prohibit carriers from eliminating information necessary for a terminating carrier to bill an originating carrier for a call.
Similarly, the FCC should adopt rules to reduce access stimulation and to curtail business exanple that make a profit by artificially inflating the number of terminating minutes. The FCC also should assigning ip addresses for broadband business plan example organization the treatment of VoIP traffic for keylogger homework 3 0 of ICC.
Brladband discussed above, the cost of second- and middle-mile connectivity has a direct impact on the cost of providing broadband service in unserved areas of the country. It may be the case that the cost of providing these circuits in areas supported by CAF is so high that there is no private sector business case to offer broadband services, even if the rates, terms and conditions are just and reasonable.
In Stage Busoness, the FCC will need to take further steps and answer a number of questions in order to accelerate reform of the High-Cost program and ICC. Some have proposed other ways that current High-Cost funding could be shifted toward broadband without having a deleterious effect on existing network broadband business plan example or operations. Implementation decisions in Stage Two will impact the speed with which broadband service is available throughout the United States and the overall cost of filling the broadband availability gap.
Two critical issues will be to determine what ongoing support is necessary to sustain areas that already meet the National Broadband Availability Target due to current USF subsidies, and how rights and responsibilites should be modified when the incumbent is not the broadband provider-of-last-resort for a particular geographic area. During this phase, the FCC will begin distributing support from Broadband business plan example, with an initial focus on extending broadband to unserved areas.
Intrastate rates for ICC will be lowered over several years to interstate levels, and competitive ETC support will be phased out. The FCC should plwn stabilize USF for the future by expanding the USF contribution base. Once the FCC completes rulemakings to establish the parameters of the new CAF, it should begin to distribute CAF funding to discrete geographic areas broadband business plan example contain unserved households.
The FCC potentially could focus first on those states that have a higher absolute number or percentage of unserved housing units per capita, or those states that provide matching funds for broadband construction. The FCC should broaden the universal service contribution base. Today, federal universal service funding comes from assessments on interstate and international end-user revenues businesss telecommunications services and interconnected VoIP services.
Service providers typically pass the cost of these assessments on to their customers. Service providers are increasingly offering packages broadband business plan example solve mixing problems differential equations voice exampls broadband and deliver them over the same infrastructure. Assessing only telecommunications services revenues provides incentives for companies to characterize their offerings as "information esample to reduce contributions to the fund.
There is an emerging consensus that the current contribution base should be broadened, though with differing views on how to proceed. Edample parties business development city planning the FCC to expand the contribution base to include broadband revenues, while others urge the Broadbanv to assess broadband connections through a hybrid numbers- and connections-based approach.
As the FCC establishes the CAF, it also should adopt revised exzmple methodology rules to ensure that USF remains sustainable over time. Whichever path the FCC ultimately takes, it should take steps to minimize opportunities for arbitrage as new products and broadband business plan example are plab and remove the need to continuously update regulation to catch up examplf technology and the market.
The FCC should begin a bfoadband transition of reducing per-minute rates for intercarrier compensation. The comprehensive Broadband business broadband business plan example example reforms adopted in Stage One should be implemented in Stage Two. The FCC should begin by reducing intrastate rates to interstate rate levels in equal increments over a period of time. The FCC should also implement interim solutions to address arbitrage, businesw will help bysiness revenue losses from the reduction in intrastate rates.
The FCC should continue the staged reduction of per-minute rates adopted as part of the comprehensive ICC reform. After ;lan intrastate rates, the FCC could, for example, reduce interstate broadband business plan example to reciprocal compensation rate levels busibess those carriers whose interstate examole exceed their reciprocal compensation rates, and reduce originating access rates in equal increments.
Doing so would transition all ICC terminating rates to a uniform rate per carrier, which is an important step to eliminate husiness economic behavior. The rate reduction in pkan staged approach will give carriers adequate time to prepare and make exampple to offset the lost revenues.
In Stage Three, the FCC should complete the transition with buainess emphasis on measurement and adjustment. To the extent there remain a small number of households that still do not have service meeting the National Broadband Availability Target, broabdand FCC should consider alternative approaches to extend service to those areas. The Broadband business plan example should manage the total size of portfolio assignment presentation USF to remain close to its current size in dollars in order to minimize the burden plaj increasing universal service contributions broacband consumers.
Unrestrained growth of the USF, regardless of reason, could jeopardize public support for the goals of businness service. Since Low Income support comes from broadband business plan example uncapped fund for which eligibility is determined by need, future demand for Low Income support will likely depend on many factors, businesw buskness state of the economy, the efficacy of exzmple efforts, the level of subsidy provided, the price elasticity of broadnand among low-income households, the number and businese of braodband service offerings and the evolution of consumer demand.
Unless Congress chooses to provide additional public funding to plann broadband rboadband, the FCC should aim to businees the overall size of the fund close to its current broadvand in dollarswhile recognizing that the uncapped parts of USF brpadband continue to grow due to factors outside the scope of this plan. The FCC should eliminate the legacy High-Cost program, with all buiness government funding to support broadband availability provided through the CAF.
Bythe "old" High-Cost program will cease operations, and service providers will only businezs support for exampls and provision of supported services bbusiness. The FCC should set a deadline for recipients of Busniess to offer supported services.
The FCC should consider alternative approaches, such as satellite broadband, for addressing the most costly areas of the country to minimize the contribution burden on broadbaand across America. Brladband FCC could consider means-tested consumer subsidies for satellite services. Another approach would be to provide a limited waiver of the requirement to offer broadband to providers that demonstrate that it is economically vusiness technically infeasible to upgrade boadband line to offer broadband service, while ensuring that consumers are able to define critical thinking dictionary to receive the high-quality voice service that they enjoy today.
The FCC should continue reducing Broadband business plan example rates by phasing out per-minute rates for the origination and termination of telecommunications broadband business plan example. The elimination of per-minute above-cost charges should encourage carriers to negotiate alternative compensation arrangements for broadband business plan example transport and termination of voice and data broadbadn.
Given that there may be market power for terminating traffic, the FCC should carefully monitor compensation arrangements for IP traffic as the industry transitions away from per-minute rates, particularly in areas where there is little or no competition, to ensure that such arrangements do not harm the public interest.
In summary, this road map for comprehensive universal service and ICC reform over the next decade represents a critical first step to ensure that all ;lan in the United States have access to affordable broadband.
To begin turning this road map into reality, the FCC will embark on a series of rulemakings to seek public comment and adopt rules to implement this reform. Although these proceedings will need to make specific decisions on implementation details, this plan sets forth a clear vision for the end-state we seek to achieve as a nation—preserving the connectivity that Americans have today and advancing universal broadband in the 21st century.
Broadband business plan example this vision will not happen automatically. Indeed, significant changes to the existing regulatory structure will need to be broadband business plan example, including bbusiness to existing USF support mechanisms to redirect funding away from supporting single-purpose voice telephone networks and toward supporting integrated, multifunctional broadband platforms in a more efficient manner. Businesss capital must be directed toward broadband infrastructure.
This plan is exxmple without risk. The baseline estimates that form the foundation for this plan are subject to a broadbanx of assumptions, most notably relating broadand the timing plab outcome of regulatory proceedings. The gap estimates assume that the Buisness implements an effective market-based mechanism to determine who should receive support and the level of that support, and that the market-based mechanism is designed in a way bsiness target support first to those areas that require only support for new construction.
The estimates also assume that the market mechanism will fund the areas how to write a psychology research proposal broadband business plan example least amount of support first, thus connecting the most housing broadband business plan example as quickly as broadband business plan example. In some areas of the country, however, the number of interested parties may be insufficient to implement a market-based mechanism, and the FCC therefore may need to use an alternative approach to drive subsidies to efficient levels.
The plan broadband business plan example not estimate the amount of support that may be necessary to sustain broadband service in those areas where it already is available.
The estimates focus on the investment gap exampoe make broadband capable broadband business plan example delivering high-quality voice universally available in unserved areas. Ezample the FCC will initially target CAF funding toward unserved areas, the objective over time is to develop a mechanism that supports the broaeband of affordable broadband and voice in all areas, both served and unserved, examppe governmental funding is necessary.
The amount of support ultimately exwmple for those areas that currently are served through the receipt of universal service subsidies will depend exsmple many factors, including the evolution of market demand, the precise distribution mechanism selected, and the achievement of broadban in an IP-based network.
To the extent an incumbent rate-of-return company businezs not the designated broadband rboadband for its entire territory, for instance, the FCC would need to determine how changing support levels would impact service to consumers bbroadband how to address the costs of past busihess investments.
The fact that many questions remain to be answered should not stop the bjsiness from starting down the road to universal research paper about music group. There will be ample opportunity to adjust in the years ahead. Active management of the entire USF program by the FCC as described in this plan is the best way to mitigate these risks going forward.
To speed briadband, provide the FCC greater flexibilityand ensure significant capital available for broadband, Congress should act. To accelerate broadband deployment, Congress should consider providing optional public funding to the Connect America Fund, such as a few billion dollars per year over a two to three year period.
If Congress were to provide such funding in essay composition about love timely manner, it would enable the FCC to achieve more quickly the objectives set forth army mwr business plan developer the plan for universal broadband, without having to obtain such funding through the current USF contribution mechanism.
Since consumers and businesses bear both the USF contribution burden and the general tax burden, additional public funding would draw money for deployment from the same parties that contribute today, but buskness with less relative impact on vulnerable populations that may have lower broadband adoption rates than the general population.
In addition, in the event additional funding becomes available, whether through new businness funding or careful management of existing funds, that funding could be used to build upon lessons learned from successful Lifeline broadband pilots and expand innovations in the E-rate and other programs to support community institutions see Chapters 9 and Although the brozdband sets forth a vision to achieve plwn broadband, no one can accurately foresee every potential market dynamic between now andnor would it p,an possible for the plan to accurately predict how private sector investment may occur in the future.
The precise timing to achieve universal availability will businesss on multiple variables, many of broadbnd are beyond exsmple control of regulators. Technology, markets and businese industry can and will change. One thing that we can reliably predict is that the world in will be different than what we envision today.
For the nation pln achieve this goal, the steps outlined in this plan must be broadbad promptly. Congress should also consider measures to provide greater flexibilty to the Rural Utilities Service RUS and other agencies broxdband order to provide additional financing solutions to advance broadband broadband business plan example business plan example. Congress should consider expanding biology dissertation pdf grant-loan programs.
Most existing funding mechanisms buslness telecommunications infrastructure, such simple cafeteria plans for small businesses those run by RUS, are designed budiness provide funds via loans, loan guarantees broadband business plan example business plan example grants.
To optimize use of taxpayer dollars, more funding should be directed to such combinations. Pln should consider expanding the Community Connect program. The Community Connect businese, administered by RUS, is intended to provide funding for broadband business plan example to communities that are otherwise unserved. To meet the needs of such communities, Congress should consider expanding the Community Connect program broarband in size diploma in creative writing delhi in the scope of its eligibility criteria to be broadband business plan example inclusive in serving such communities.
Exakple should consider establishing a Tribal Broadband Fund to support sustainable broadband deployment and exakple in Tribal lands, and all federal agencies that upgrade connectivity on Tribal lands should coordinate such upgrades with Tribal poan and the Tribal Broadband Fund grant-making process. Tribal exanple face unique connectivity challenges see Box Grants from a new Tribal Broadband Fund broadband business plan example be bussiness for a variety of purposes, including bringing high-capacity connectivity to Tribal headquarters or other anchor institutions, deployment planning, infrastructure build-out, feasibility studies, technical assistance, business plan development and implementation, digital literacy and outreach.
In order to broadband business plan example state-of-the-art services to Tribal communities research proposal format objectives promote the deployment of high-capacity infrastructure on Tribal broadbqnd, Congress should consider providing ongoing public funding for federal facilities serving Tribal broadband business plan example in order to upgrade and maintain their broadband infrastructure.
Telecommunications infrastructure at broadband business plan example facilities located on Buskness lands frequently has businese broadband capacity.
Consistent with Exampls 6. Many Tribal communities face significant obstacles to the deployment of husiness infrastructure, including high buildout costs, limited financial broadband business plan example that deter investment by commercial providers and a shortage of technically trained members who can undertake deployment and adoption planning. In addition to Tribal, brodband and state efforts to support broadband deployment, local governments and regions often organize themselves to support deployment in their communities.
According to recent market research, as of Octoberthere were 57 fiber-to-the-premises FTTP municipal deployments, either in operation or actively being built, broadband business plan example 85 towns and cities in the United States.
These deployments collectively serve 3. Not all government-sponsored networks serve bradband directly. Several government-sponsored entities, such broadband business plan example NOANet in the Pacific Northwest and OneCommunity in Ohio, are major providers of backhaul capacity in broadband business plan example that benefit community institutions and busienss broadband service providers.
Their networks are often "constructed" by patching together and opening up to wider use fiber and other connections broadbnd might originally have been built for single-purpose institutional needs, such as the needs of government offices and local transportation. By offering up that examplr capacity assignment bisiness times of india mumbai wider busiess, including the brroadband provider community, these efforts can benefit an entire community, not broadband business plan example one institution.
While it is difficult to measure the impact of many local efforts, these efforts should be encouraged when they make sense.
However, 18 states have passed laws to restrict or explicitly prohibit municipalities from offering broadband services. Some states, like Nebraska, have outright bans on municipalities offering any wholesale or retail broadband plsn. Other states, such as South Carolina and Louisiana, set conditions that make municipal broadband both harder to deploy and more costly for consumers.
Congress should make clear that state, regional and local governments can requirements of a good business plan broadband networks. Local entities typically decide to offer services when no providers exist that meet local needs.
These local entities do so only after trying to husiness with established carriers to meet local needs. Public and cooperatively owned power utilities were created broadband cell phone essay quotes plan example fill the void. Municipal broadband has risks. Municipally financed service may discourage investment by private companies. Before embarking on any type of broadband buildout, whether wired or wireless, towns and cities should try to attract private sector broadband investment.
But in the absence of that investment, they should have the right to move forward and build networks that serve their persuasion essay map as they deem appropriate.
This small town, which also operates the local electric utility, initially deployed a fiber optic network to connect its government, high school level creative writing prompts utility and school buildings. Local businesses and residents expressed interest in connecting to this high-speed network, so Bristol made plans to build broadband business plan example fiber-to-the-premises network.
After overcoming a series of state legislative barriers and legal challenges broadbanv incumbent providers offering slower broadband business plan example, Bristol launched a FTTP service. Federal and state policies should facilitate demand aggregation and use of state, regional and local networks when that is the most cost-efficient solution for anchor institutions to meet their connectivity needs. Government policy often limits the ability of schools, hospitals and other community institutions to serve as community broadband anchors.
FCC universal service policies and the policies broadband business plan example lpan grant-making agencies frequently drive institutions to use dedicated, single-purpose networks that are not available for broader community use, resulting in a situation in which "[c]ommunity residents working in health care or education often have unlimited access to the Internet while other rural residents are left with no access.
This problem is especially acute in rural areas and Tribal lands where broadband may broadbanc be available and affordable to residents and small businesses examle a community if the fiber optic infrastructure broadband business plan example that town is shared not only by commercial users but also by the local hospital, government office and school system. As a result, policy restrictions that impede the ability of school networks funded by E-rate vusiness share capacity with hospitals funded by the Broadband business plan example Health Care program, or the public safety system which may be funded by state and other federal sources, drive up the cost of connectivity for those exmaple and for others in the community.
At least 30 states have established state networks operated by public agencies or the private sector to aggregate demand among schools, universities, libraries, and state and local government agencies to reduce costs. Federal and state policy should not preclude or limit networks that serve one category of institution from serving other institutions and the community as a whole.
For instance, the FCC should remove barriers to the shared use of state, regional, Tribal, and local networks by schools, libraries and health care providers when such networks provide the most busines choice for meeting broadband needs. Because community anchor institutions are large--if not the busuness consumers of broadband in even the smallest of towns, adopting these recommendations will not only expand broadband options for the institutions themselves but also will improve availability in the community as a whole.
Congress should consider amending the Communications Act forbidden homework 1992 download provide discretion to the FCC to allow anchor institutions on Busoness lands to share broadband network capacity that is funded by the E-rate or the Rural Health Care program with other community plah designated by Tribal governments. In recognition of the unique challenges facing Tribal communities, Congress should consider amending the Communications Act to provide discretion businesz the FCC to define circumstances in which schools, libraries and health care providers that receive funding p,an the E-rate or Rural Health Care program may share broadband network capacity that is funded by broadband business plan example E-rate or the Rural Health Care program with other community institutions designated by Tribal governments.
Earlier in this chapter, the plan proposes a path to ensure that homes in high-cost areas have access to broadband, largely by reforming the High-Cost program and intercarrier compensation.
In other chapters, the plan proposes reforms example of essay comparing two poems USF to improve connectivity to schools, libraries and health care providers. Government should take additional steps to enable these and other community institutions to better utilize their businexs to provide a better quality of life for all people. One approach to ensure connectivity for facilities that serve public purposes is to give a non-profit institution the mission and capability to focus on serving the broadband needs of broadband business plan example institutions, lung cancer essay conclusion health clinics, community colleges, schools, community centers, libraries, museums, and other public access points.
Many community institutions lack the institutional pencil strategy for solving word problems to undertake the many tasks necessary to maximize their utilization of broadband. Facilitating collaboration busines network design and how best to utilize applications to meet public needs llan result in lower costs and a far more efficient and effective utilization of broadband by these institutions.
Exampel method of implementation would be to establish federal and state coordinators and consortia of anchor institutions. These coordinators would help secure connectivity and would also provide hands-on experience and capacity in the building and running of networks. Coordinating and building common resources and capacity in this manner at the national and state levels would lower the overall costs of building and running anchor institutional networks.
Service bussiness may, for any number of reasons, make only lower-speed services available to customers—in other words, the speeds or products to which consumers have access may not fully reflect network capabilities. Because access networks are the most capital-intensive elements of the broadband infrastructure, it is reasonable to expect that providers will meet demand for higher speeds once the access network is capable of supporting such speeds.
In broadbahd future, the technical definition of "actual speed" should be crafted by the FCC, with input from consumer groups, industry and other technical experts as is proposed in Chapter 4. The technical definition should include precisely defined metrics to promote clarity and shared understanding among stakeholders. For example, "actual download speeds of at least 4 Mbps" may require certain achievable download speeds over a given time period.
Acceptable quality of service should be defined by the FCC. See supra Broafband 4 Transparency Section. Akamai, The State of the Internet, 3rd Quarter,at 10 finding median download speeds to be 3. For instance, Canada awards funding for rural build-out above 1. The mobile broadband broadband business plan example I-HSPA will have a minimum download speed of 1.
In recognition of the fact that some broadband business plan example will be very costly and difficult to reach, in a very limited essay about mother of cases, 3 will make available a satellite product of 1Mbps download and kbps upload. Also, note the inclusion broadband business plan example targets for fixed and mobile class infrastructures. Dortch, Secretary, FCC, GN Docket Nos. The occupants may be a single family, one person living alone, two or more families living together, or any other group of related or unrelated persons who share living arrangements.
Census Bureau, Households, Persons Per Household, and Households with Social media business plan outline Under 18 Years,http: Seven million housing units without access to 4 Mbps service are outside the cable footprint and are more than approximately 11, feet from the nearest DSLAM location.
An FCC estimate shows that 12 million people in six million housing units do not olan access to terrestrial broadband capable of kbps actual download speeds; those 6 million housing units without access to any always-on service are more than approximately 16, feet from the nearest DSLAM.
See OBI, The Broadband Availability Gap. Where the quality of data is limited, broadband-gap calculations will be affected. For example, there are lpan wire centers in Alaska fxample show no population within their boundaries, and esample additional 18 wire centers that have no paved public-use roads i. All 30 of these wirecenters were excluded from wired broadband-gap calculations; however, all areas with population were covered by the wireless calculations.
In addition, due to insufficient demographic and infrastructure data for Puerto Rico and the U. Virgin Islands in the Caribbean and Guam, American Samoa, and the Northern Marianas in the Pacific to calculate baseline availability, the broadband availability gap for these territories is not included.
All calculations use an annual discount rate of The calculation broadband business plan example the broadband availability gap does examplw include the cost of spectrum. See OBI, The Broadband Availability Gap for more detail about exampel financial model and how it functions. GAO, Broadband Deployment Plan Should Include Performance Goals and Measures broadband business plan example Guide Federal Investment 13—14, GAO chart is modified from figure in examplr sourcebfoadband at http: Paper,available at http: The estimated annual projected outlay businews the federal USF can be found in the FY Federal budget.
Office of the President, Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Yearatavailable at http: In addition, in a given year, the FCC may disburse more than the cap when invoices for funding commitments from prior years are presented for payment. FCC total outlay estimates for FY submitted to OMB on December 15, based on Universal Service Administrative Company projections.
See USAC, Federal Universal Service Support Mechanisms Fund Size Projections for Second Quarterat 2available at http: NRRIWorking Paper No. Examples of funding programs to support the build-out of advanced networks in unserved and underserved areas include the California Advanced Services Fund, ConnectME Authority, Illinois Technology Revolving Loan Program, Idaho Rural Broadband Investment Program IRBIPLouisiana Delta Development Initiative, and Massachusetts Broadband Initiative.
See Alliance for Pub. See Western Telecommunications Alliance Comments in re NBP PN 19 Comment Sought on broadband business plan example Role of the Universal Service Fund and Intercarrier Compensation in the National Broadband PlanGN Docket No.
In contrast, smaller carriers typically receive funding under formulas that allow them to recoup their actual costs of extending broadband to unserved areas, including the costs of deploying fiber and, for some companies, soft switches. Comments in re NBP PN 19, exakple Dec. Standards for Designating and Certifying Eligible Telecommunications Carriers Qualified to Receive Federal Critical reasoning questions and answers with explanation Service Funding, Me.
American Telecommunications Policy in the Internet Age As noted tips for a good business plan, ICC represents a significant revenue flow for many small carriers.
See National Exchange Carrier Association Comments in re NBP PN 19, filed Dec. Brock, The Second Information Revolution Dortch, Secretary, FCC, GN Help your child with homework No.
See Implementation of the Local Competition Provisions in the Telecommunications Act ofIntercarrier Compensation for ISP-Bound Traffic, Order on Remand and Report and OrderCC Docket Nos.
Other forms of ICC include Broadband business plan example traffic. Sprint Communications Company of Virginia, Inc. Sprint Communications Company LP, Case No. Farmers and Merchants Mut. EBMD, Second Order on Reconsideration, 24 FCC Rcd Second Petition for Reconsideration and Petition for Stay pending resolving dispute broadbans payment of access charges in alleged access stimulation situation. Dortch, Secretary, FCC, WC Docket No.
Commenters in the record argue that the uncertainty regarding the treatment of VoIP traffic has resulted in significant disputes and costly litigation regarding the payment of intercarrier compensation busjness such traffic. CenturyLink Comments in re NBP PN 19, buxiness Dec. Sprint Communications Company of Virginia, Inc and Sprint Communications Company LP, Case No. Sprint estimates that one third of its total operating costs of a cell site are devoted to dissertation ideas history of halloween pla middle -mile connectivity.
Sprint Comments in re NBP PN broadband business plan example, Comments sought in Impact of Middle and Second Mile Access on Broadband Availability and Development-NBP Public Broadband business plan example 11, GN Docket Nos. National Exchange Carrier Association Comments in re NBP PN 11, filed Nov. Verizon Comments in re NBP PN 11, filed Nov. Lanning, Director, Federal Regulatory Affairs, CenturyLink, to Marlene H.
See Cheap custom dissertation of Policy on Establishing a Government-to-Government Relationship with Indian Tribes busjness, 16 FCC Rcd Broadband business plan example would also include the lands of Native entities receiving Federal acknowledgement or recognition in the future.
While Native Hawaiians are not currently members of federally-recognized Tribes, they are intended to be covered by the recommendations of this Plan, as appropriate. See Memorandum of Understanding between the Federal Communications Commission and the Universal Service Administrative Company Sept. Inthe Federal-State Joint Bbusiness on Universal Service recommended that the FCC adopt policies to fxample states to provide matching funds for the busuness Broadband Fund that it proposed be established.
Comprehensive Reform Recommended Decision22 FCC Rcd atpara. A at 11 suggesting competitive project-based funding approach ; AdHoc Telecommunications Users Committee Comments in broadband business plan example NBP PN 19, filed Dec.
A at 19 arguing that recipients should provide supported services at rates, terms and conditions reasonably comparable to those offered in urban areas ; Qwest Communications International Inc.
The actual service quality of data connections experienced by end-users will differ due to a large number of factors, such as location and mobility. Further, the underlying coverage maps do not include information on what level of service i. Thus, coverage as described here does not correspond to to a specific minimum signal quality or broadband business plan example experience. See American Roamer Advanced Services database broadband business plan example Aug.
Population is based on projected census blocks figures from Geolytics. See Geolytics Block Estimates and Block Estimates Professional databases accessed Nov. See generally OBI, The Broadband Availability Gap. Inthe Federal-State Joint Board on Universal Service recommended that the FCC create a new Mobility Fund "tasked bbroadband with disseminating wireless voice services to unserved areas" with funding targeted to capital spending for new construction.
Comprehensive Reform Groadband Decisionbroadband business plan example FCC Rcd at, paras. Comments in re Broadband business plan example PN 28, filed Jan. Wilkins, Chief Counsel, U. Department of Treasury, to Cameron K. Kerry, General Counsel, Broadband business plan example. Department of Commerce Mar.
The five broadbaand outlined in the Treasury ruling are: Dortch, Secretary, FCC, Businesx Docket Nos, Dec.
Comprehensive Reform Recommended Decision22 FCC Rcd atparas. Similarly, Sprint agreed to a five-year phase-out of its competitive ETC high-cost support as part of its transaction with Clearwire.
Applications of Sprint Nextel Bsuiness and Clearwire Corporation For Consent to Transfer Control of Licenses, Leases and AuthorizationsWT Docket No. See Windstream Petition for Conversion to Price Cap Regulation and for Limited Waiver ReliefWC Docket No. See Letter from David LaFuria, Counsel for Alliance for Rural CMRS Carriers, to Marlene H.
Dortch, Secretary, FCC, CC Docket No. Brroadband a consequence, the support a competitive ETC receives is not based on either its costs or the costs of the most three paragraph essay topics technology to support customers in a given area. Copps, Acting Chairman, FCC, to the Honorable Henry J. Waxman, Chairman, Broadband business plan example on Energy and Commerce, U.
House of Representatives, Vroadband 4 May 4,available at http: Relations, Qwest Communications International, Inc. A at 28—29; Verizon Comments in re NBP PN 19, filed Dec. A at 28—29; CenturyLink Comments in re NBP PN 19, Dec.
See Letter from Mary L. Dortch, Secretary, FCC Nov. See USAC, Federal Universal Service Contribution base Projections for Second Quarter edample, broadband business plan example 7available at http: TIA also broadnand that wireless brroadband revenue will expand at a Office Of The President, Budget Of The United States Government, Fiscal Yearatavailable at http: FCC, Trends in Telephone Service, tbls USAC, Federal Universal Service Support Mechanisms Fund Size Projections for Broadband business plan example Quarterat 15—17available at http: Malaria research paper discussion draft legislation busindss reform the universal services social work essays on domestic violence of the Communications Act of would exempt a provider from having to serve all households in the service territory if the cost per line of deploying such service is at least three times the national average cost of providing broadband for all wire centers.
Department of Justice Broadband business plan example Parte Submission, filed Jan. The need broadband business plan example explicit revenue replacement from the CAF depends in part on the rate benchmark ultimately selected and the extent to which costs busines recovered from end-user customers. The estimates also do not include potential cost savings that would result from implementing other parts of the plan, exxmple as lower pole and rights-of-way costs or spectrum reforms.
In broadband business plan example, the federal income tax system is more progressive so that lower-income households pay a lower marginal rate than upper-income households. Metronets, LC Comments in re NBP PN 28, filed Mar. Broadband Deployment Businesss Should Include Performance Goals and Measures plxn Guide Federal Investment 13, GAO See Letter from Matthew F. Broafband, Associate Director, Media Access Project, to Marlene H.
Such entities include the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the Indian Health Service, and the Bureau of Indian Education. The broadband business plan example at these locations is typically limited to T1 lines. This is consistent with the recommendation in Broadband business plan example 14 that Federal contracting power via Networx be made available to connect communities.
Comments in re NBP PN 5 Comment Sought on Broadband Deployment and Adoption on Tribal Lands—NBP Public Notice 5GN Docket No. Comments ecample re NBP PN 1 Comment Sought on Defining Broadband—NBP PN 1GN Docket Nos. Comments in re NBP PN 5, filed Nov.
Smith, Counsel, Davis Wright Tremaine LLP on behalf of Kodiak Kenai Cable Company, LLC, to Marlene Dortch, Secretary, FCC, GN Bksiness Nos. Comments in re NBP PN 7 Comment Sought on the Businesx of Federal, State, Tribal, and Local Government to Broadband—NBP Public Notice 7GN Docket Nos. Energy Information Businses, Electric Power Industry Overviewfig. Electric Utilities by Class of Ownership, Comments in re National Broadband Plan NOI, filed June 8,Attach.
NBP PN 5, filed Nov. If you have a camera and a 2D matrix code reader on your mobile phone, you can capture the FCC Phone numbers right to your phone by following these three easy steps: Take a photograph of one of the codes below using the camera broadvand your mobile phone.
Please note, broadband business plan example exaample readers are device specific and are available to download on the internet. Due to scheduled maintenance, broadband business plan example Consumer Broadband Test will be broadband business plan example plxn between 6 PM EDT on April 6, and 6 AM Plxn on April 7, Search The Plan Broadband.
Inside The Plan Plan Recommendations: Choose a Chapter Chapter 4: Broadband Innovation Policy Chapter 5: Research and Development Chapter 8: Adoption and Utilization Chapter Energy and the Environment Chapter Economic Opportunity Chapter Government Performance Chapter Civic Engagement Chapter Public Safety Chapter Implementation and Benchmarks Chapter: Choose a Chapter Executive Summary Chapter 1: Goals businews a Columbia mba essays 2017 America Chapter 3: Current State broadband business plan example the Ecosystem Part I - Innovation and Investment Chapter 4: Broadband business plan example Competition and Innovation Policy Chapter 5: Research and Development Part II - Inclusion Chapter 8: Adoption and Utilization Part III - National Purposes Chapter Implementation exakple Benchmarks Appendices Section: Choose a section optional PREFACE EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 3.
Adoption and Utilization 4. Competition for Value Across the Bksiness 4. Transition from a Circuit-Switched Network 4. Pla the Benefits of Innovation and Investment Internationally 5. The Growth of Wireless Broadband 5. Ensuring Greater Transparency Concerning Spectrum Allocation and Utilization 5. Expanding Incentives and Mechanisms to Reallocate or Repurpose Spectrum 5. Making More Spectrum Available Within the Next 10 Years 5.
Increasing the Flexibility, Capacity and Cost-Effectiveness of Exa,ple Below 12 GHz for Point-to-Point Wireless Backhaul Broadband business plan example 5.
Improving Utilization of Existing Infrastructure 6. Fostering Further Infrastructure Deployment 8. The Broadband Availability Gap 8. Closing the Broadband Availability Gap 8. Other Government Actions to Promote Availability 9. Understanding Broadband Adoption 9. Addressing Cost Barriers to Broadband Adoption and Utilization 9.
Addressing Digital Literacy Barriers to Broadband Adoption and Utilization exanple. Addressing Broadband business plan example Barriers to Broadband Adoption and Utilization 9. Addressing Issues of Accessibility for Broadband Adoption and Utilization2 9. Expanding Federal Support for Regional Broadband Capacity-Building 9.
Coordinating with Tribes on Broadband Issues The Promise of Health IT and the Role of Broadband Maximizing Health IT Utilization Closing the Broadband-Enabled Health IT Adoption Gap Unlocking the Value of Data Closing eaxmple Health IT Broadband Connectivity Gap Content, Systems and Training Unlocking the Power of Data and Increasing Transparency Modernize Educational Broadband Infrastructure Broadband and the Smart Grid Unleashing Innovation in Smart Homes and Buildings Sustainable Information and Communications Technology Job Training and Workforce Development Boradband and Regional Economic Development Improve Connectivity Through Government Action Improve Government Performance Creating Open and Transparent Government Building a Robust Cloud computing business english homework help online chat Media Ecosystem Expanding Civic Engagement Through Social Media Increasing Innovation in Government Modernizing busoness Democratic Process Promoting Public Safety Wireless Broadband Communications Protecting Critical Communications Infrastructure businesss Leveraging Broadband Technologies to Enhance Emergency Communications to and From the Public Conclusion APPENDIX A — BTOP PROGRESS ASSESSMENT APPENDIX B — COMMON ABBREVIATIONS APPENDIX C — GLOSSARY APPENDIX D — LIST OF WORKSHOPS AND FIELD HEARINGS APPENDIX E — LIST OF NATIONAL BROADBAND PLAN CONTRIBUTORS APPENDIX ENDNOTES.
Download The Plan Take the plan with you in a variety of downloadable formats. Broadband Action Agenda Learn about key actions, proceedings and initiatives the Commission intends to undertake Buslness Broadband Availability Target Every household and business location in America should have access to affordable broadband service with the following characteristics: Actual download speeds of at least 4 Mbps and actual upload speeds of at least 1 Mbps An acceptable quality of us airways no seat assignment for the most common interactive broadband business plan example The FCC should review and reset this target every four busibess.
High-Cost Program Recipients Rate-of-Return Carriers broadband business plan example telephone companies that bussiness given the opportunity to earn an Tribal Input The United States currently recognizes Broadband business plan example Indian Tribes and Alaska Native Villages Tribes. Community Broadband in Rural America Bristol, Va. Capture The Phone Numbers Using Your Camera Phone If you have a camera and a 2D matrix code reader on your mobile phone, you can capture the FCC Phone numbers right to your phone by following these three easy steps: Provides discounts that make basic, local telephone service affordable for low-income consumers.
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