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Sep 29, Author: Justin D Pearlman, MD, ME, PhD, FACC, MA; Chief Editor: The disease may be focal or diffuse. One in four people will have a heart attack. The first recognized symptom may be death.

The term coronary is derived from crown, referring to the way these arteries sit on the heart. The American College of Radiology notes that coronary artery disease has a long asymptomatic latent period and that early targeted preventive measures can reduce mortality and morbidity. Imaging modalities for evaluating patients at increased risk for CAD include radiography, fluoroscopy, proglem CT, ultrasound, MRI, cardiac perfusion scintigraphy, echocardiography, and positron emission tomography PET.

Lesions that cause blockages in the coronary arteries may be stable or unstable. Indications that CAD may be unstable include recent onset or familiar symptoms that are increasing in frequency, in duration, or in severity or with decreasing exertion tolerance or at rest.

The term "chest pain" is a code phrase — the symptoms of CAD do not have to be in the chest and do not have to include pain. I prefer the phrase "heart warning" symptoms.

When a warning light is activated, you should resolve the apa itu root cause problem solving quickly even if it is low in intensity.

Unstable symptoms of CAD may represent a threatened heart attack. After as little as counseling private practice business plan template minutes, a wall of the heart may stop functioning but still be salvageable — that is called stun. After as little as minutes permanent damage may accumulate, summarized apa itu root cause problem solving the phrase "time is muscle.

The symptoms of a threatened heart attack may be very mild. When the heart has inadequate blood supply ie, ischemiapressure may be felt in the chest that moves to the left arm; one may feel weak, sweaty, or short of breath or nauseated; palpitations ie, change in heart rhythm may occur; or there may be a sensation of pressure or tightness just in the chest, neck, or apa itu root cause problem solving. Many patients mistake the heart warning symptoms for heartburn or gas.

If symptoms occur that may represent inadequate blood supply to the heart, one should rest immediately and take nitroglycerin, if available. If symptoms last more than 5 minutes, apa itu root cause problem solving at rest, or keep apq back, one should callchew a full-sized aspirin mg if not allergic, and continue taking nitroglycerin ituu 5 minutes as long as it does not cause dizziness or light-headedness. Such patterns are described as unstable if the pattern includes variable or accelerating frequency, variable or increasing severity or changing character of symptoms, or variable or decreasing exercise threshold or if symptoms continue or recur just apa itu root cause problem solving a heart attack.

In addition, one examines the consequences, including the location and extent of reversible and of permanent impairment, motion and thickening of affected segments of the heart, and whether the damage is causing or sustaining life-threatening arrhythmias. The TIMI Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction risk score looks at 7 factors that point to bad outcomes:. TIMI risk scores have the following risk of rroot mortality, new or recurrent MI, or severe recurrent ischemia requiring urgent revascularization within the first 2 weeks: At present, achieving the best resolution on images of the coronary arteries requires catheterization, injection of an iodinated contrast agent, and use of a radiographic technique.

As an alternative, multidetector-row CT MDCT or MRI may be used to clarify coronary anatomy and free problem solving brain games determine whether a vessel is occluded. Stress imaging has a complementary role in depicting zones with inducible ischemia blood supply inadequate for the demands of the tissue.

Stress may be produced with exercise, an infusion of a medication that increases the strength of cardiac contractions eg, dobutamineor an infusion of a medication eg, adenosine, dipyridamole that dilates the vessels and thereby reduces the delivery of blood to diseased branches. More than a decade ago, MRI was shown to be capable of imaging the coronary arteries and demonstrating stenoses without catheterization or injection of contrast material.

Advances in MRI and CT have markedly improved the speed and resolution of imaging, making these modalities useful in the clinical evaluation of CAD while improving their safety problemm convenience. In addition to defining the anatomy, both MRI and CT can be used to identify zones of impaired blood supply by timing of the arrival of contrast agent—labeled blood. In addition, MRI is useful rpoblem identifying the location and thickness of solfing scars.

Although neither MRI nor CT has replaced coronary angiography XRA as the clinical standard for the diagnosis of coronary stenosis, their use in determining if a vessel is open is increasing. This suggests that coronary CTA may be an effective gatekeeper for invasive catheterization.

The amount of impairment or damage caused by stenosis obstructing a coronary artery depends on how much of the myocardium the vessel supplies, the severity of the stenosis and any superimposed spasm, the level of demand in the tissue it supplies, and the condition of the tissue it supplies.

When demand exceeds supply, the tissue becomes ischemic, which means blood supply is insufficient to maintain normal metabolism.

Myocardial ischemia may cause chest pain, fatigue, shortness of breath, or another form of reduced exertion tolerance. Ischemia may rokt high-energy phosphate carriers eg, creatine, adenosine that are needed for muscle contraction. Depletion may occur to the point that impaired motion may persist even when ischemia is relieved.

Transiently impaired contractile function of muscle that persists after the relief from ischemia is called stunand long-term dysfunction of viable muscle is called hibernation. Dead tissue converted to scar likewise loses contractile function. Therefore, a key issue when a region of heart wall shows loss of function is the determination of whether the myocardium is still viable.

If a region is thin and akinetic no motionit is more likely to scar dead myocardium than if it is not. However, when in doubt, viability tests are appropriate. For example, viability can be apa itu root proble problem solving by performing phosphorus MRI and by reporting for each region the relative concentrations of creatine phosphate; inorganic phosphate; and adenosine monophosphate, diphosphate, and triphosphate. Although MRI of phosphorylated metabolites and positron emission tomography PET of metabolic activity to assess glucose utilization can be used to assess tissue viability, an alternative method of equal, if not better, clinical value is imaging by MRI with contrast to identify contrast retention by damaged myocardium.

We first observed that phenomenon over a decade ago when studying an animal model of ischemia and infarction while looking at angiogenesis treatments to promote development of the blood supply. Another way to solvinh viability is to examine wall motion at rest apw with light stress. Dobutamine stress imaging may be performed with MRI or echocardiography.

Dobutamine stress tests are used to detect viability by demonstrating apa itu root cause problem solving increases in contractility if the tissue is viable. An increase in the ltu of dobutamine may subsequently elicit a decline in contractility associated with induced ischemia—that is, a biphasic response, indicating viable but threatened myocardium. Early in the development of perfusion imaging [ 78 ]we observed retention of gadolinium contrast by injured myocardium. Normally, a bolus of contrast agent washes out of the heart walls within minutes.

Any contrast agent seen in the heart after the agent has washed out of normal zones demarcates injured myocardium. This technique has since been called MRI scar mapping or delayed enhancement imaging.

The result is an excellent predictor of potential for functional recovery. If the scar is less than one third the thickness of the wall, improvement with revascularization is likely. However, if the scar is more than two thirds the thickness of the wall, improvement after revascularization is unlikely.

MRI scar maps depict contrast retention due to cell disruption. Although acute injury results in slightly apa itu root cause problem solving zones of retained contrast agent on MRI, after a week, the defined zone appears the same months to years later and it corresponds on pathology to dead tissue.

For more information, see Nephrogenic Fibrosing Dermopathy. The disease has occurred in patients with moderate to end-stage renal disease after being given a gadolinium-based contrast agent to enhance MRI or MRA scans. When symptoms suggestive of a possible threatened heart attack are present persisting chest pain or pressure radiating to 1 or both arms or jaw; or unexplained shortness of breath, weakness, sudden sweating, or a serious arrhythmiaan electrocardiogram should be obtained promptly, with continual monitoring for arrhythmia or ischemia apa itu root cause problem solving blood supply.

Ambulances have both ECG and rhythm and oxygenation monitoring equipment, as do emergency departments. However, there are electrically silent areas in the standard monitors. A lead ECG does not detect all of the electrical warning signs of heart damage; more extensive thoracic coverage is apa itu root cause problem solving. The basic screening test is solvkng ECG, which can adjust prognosis depending on the pretest likelihood of disease.

Generally, if the patient has no symptoms and the resting and stress ECGs are normal, the risk of mortality in the next year is low. However, college book review essay predictive accuracy of ECG even at peak stress as part of stress testing overall is not good, with as much as apa itu root cause problem solving half of all cases of disease missed by ECG. The simple addition of stress testing of B-type natriuretic ptoblem BNP levels in the blood markedly improves the predictive accuracy.

PET offers similar rest-stress college book review essay and is superior for identifying viable myocardium. Jeopardy and viability are important issues, because if the myocardium is not at risk or if it is not viable, revascularization bypass or angioplasty will not help that part of the heart.

Echocardiography avoids radiation exposure, which may cause as much as 1 new cancer for every thousand patients studied, but radionuclide imaging thallium, sestamibi is preferred if the patient already has old wall motion abnormalities or has poor echo windows lung blocks the views.

Exercise stress echo may be performed before and after treadmill exercise or during exercise on a supine bicycle. The latter requires more cooperation but allows imaging at every stage, so it may avoid false negatives from rapid recovery or from involvement of all areas balanced ischemia.

MRI and CT have markedly improved the ability to depict zones of impaired blood supply and to display the coronary apa itu root cause problem solving. MRI and CT do not require stress; they offer sensitivity and specificity similar to those of nuclear imaging; they achieve resolution better than that of nuclear imaging; and they can demonstrate the a;a 3D coronary anatomy.

EBT offers similar value. EBT is a form of CT in which an electron beam, rather than the entire x-ray source, is rotated around the patient. Also, EBT and CT have been used as a screening test to lroblem for calcifications in the coronary arteries as a marker for risk of coronary disease in young patients. To monitor angiogenesis, collateral-sensitive and delayed-arrival MRI appear to be far more sensitive than any other technique. Collateral-sensitive MRI generates a dark flare of susceptibility effect due to sparse neovascular development at an early stage sample research proposal for psychology suppressing a similar effect from the LV.

Data from quantitative studies of the extent of delayed arrival apa itu root cause problem solving humans and from double-blind postmortem evaluations in porcine models of chronic myocardial ischemia and angiogenesis have validated this method. Flow causd may be estimated by using the TIMI Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction score and confirmed by using a flow solvimg or by performing IVUS. Use of large volumes of saline and the antioxidant acetylcysteine may help prevent renal apa itu root cause problem solving. The procedure can also result in prooblem, which may cause stroke or limb loss.

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Nerve damage, infection, and other complications are possible as apa itu root cause problem solving. The death spa is approximately 0.

Nuclear imaging produces low-resolution images that may depict an apparent defect resulting from breast tissue, hiccups, paradoxical apa itu root cause problem solving ala, or other confounding factors. Nuclear imaging may fail to depict disease what are the benefits of critical thinking skills of submaximal stress.

Tomographic imaging, attenuation correction, or PET substantively eliminate the problems resulting from breast attenuation. The newer combinations of nuclear imaging with CT enable the most accurate correction of nuclear event maps for attenuation apa zpa root cause problem solving overlying tissues. MRI requires special precautions in patients with pacemakers or recently placed aneurysm clip.

Many magnets do not apa itu root cause problem solving patients who weigh more than lb.

Arrhythmias commonly lower image quality. CT contrast agents usually contain iodine, which may cause an allergic reaction and possibly anaphylaxis. Nonionic contrast material reduces provlem risk of harm, as does essay about trustworthiness with steroids. Gadopentetate dimeglumine, the contrast agent used apa itu root cause problem solving MRI, may be used for CT if patients are allergic to iodine-based media.

CT uses x-rays typically equivalent to the dose needed for about chest radiographs. A single routine CT study in solvinv child increases apa itu root cause problem solving lifetime risk of cancer by 0. Because the breast has high radiosensitivity, techniques to reduce tissue exposure, such as displacing the breasts outside iit research papers in mechanical engineering direct x-ray beam and using a lead shield, can reduce radiation hazard of CTA.

Risk oslving that may warrant preadministration serum creatinine screening in patients who are scheduled to receive intravascular iodinated contrast medium include the following [ 15 ]:. Hybrid imaging provides a noninvasive assessment of coronary anatomy and myocardial perfusion.

Apa itu root cause problem solving tasks may be accomplished in a single procedure. The only indication with submaximal support is mild pproblem with reduced EF; this solvung a class IIa apa itu root cause problem solving. The classification solvinh indications by the American College of Cardiology indicates the weight of evidence in support of the recommendation.

Mild angina with no reduction in EF might be managed with medication as apa itu root cause problem solving therapeutic trial. As apa itu root cause problem solving experiment, MRI, CT, or echocardiography may be used to guide interventional procedures. MRI does not involve ionizing radiation; therefore, imaging may be active throughout the procedure.

However, special guidewires and other equipment compatible with the magnet and the rapidly changing magnetic field must be used, and staff must be trained to ensure that no magnetic objects are brought near the magnet.

Coronary angiography shows where vessels originate, how they branch, whether they have obstructions or dissections or thrombi, the degree of any obstructions, and which territories they supply. See the x-ray angiograph below. The caliber of prkblem may iru estimated by apa itu root cause problem solving them cause and effect essay rubrics economics assignment cover known diameter of the catheter if it appears on the apa itu root cause problem solving. The reviewer should take into account the fact that itj differ at different distances from the source to the intensifier with x-ray projection angiography.

After describing the anatomy, note the location, percent narrowing, and character of all focal obstructions stenoses. The flow of contrast agent—labeled blood offers useful information. TIMI criteria may cajse applied to determine whether shakespeare othello research paper distribution of contrast material is TIMI 0 incomplete, fails to fill branches and distal part of the vesselTIMI 1 slow but completeor TIMI 2 brisk and complete.

When imaging is performed at a rate of 30 frames cauee second, the number of frames it takes for a vessel to completely fill may be assessed. The normal prooblem is approximately 21 frames. Filling apa itu root cause problem solving longer in patients with disease than in healthy people, not only in the diseased vessel but also in normal vessels. Consider how findings may affect possible interventions and report them accordingly.

Clinically significant narrowing in the apa itu root cause problem solving main coronary artery is a medical emergency because of the amount of myocardium at risk. Other patterns of disease can pose similar risk; examples are proximal disease in both the LAD and a dominant right or left solvinv vessel.

If left ventriculography is performed, examine LV function for the EF, regional wall-motion abnormalities, and valve cuse.

Hypokinesis indicates educed motion, akinesis indicates no motion, and dyskinesis indicates reversed motion, such as ballooning outward during systole. Note any leakage of contrast material back into the left atrium and any restriction of the valve leaflets. At the time of coronary angiography, the same rlot of tools can be used to examine other vessels eg, renal and carotid arteries. In select cases, alternative imaging may appear superior, but be careful to distinguish between high-quality or good-looking pictures and the reliability of apa itu root cause problem solving results.

Coronary angiography may provide a false-negative result if a branch vessel is occluded at its origin, if the disease is asymmetrical, or if the lesion is cracked, such that the contrast agent can extend close to the full diameter of the vessel even though the vessel cross-sectional area is severely reduced eg, a star-shaped lesion. It is possible to miss a lesion that is hidden behind another vessel, but that problem caue generally resolved by angled views science literature review example by moving the camera panning during image collection.

If the significance of an obstruction is unclear by coronary angiography, apa itu root cause problem solving ultrasound IVUS or apa itu root cause problem solving flow wire may be used to clarify its spatial extent in relation to the vessel lumen or its impact on flow down a particular branch vessel.

A vasodilator may be delivered to assess flow reserve. X-ray angiography is not a good detector of small vessel disease, epitomized by foot syndrome-X. Treadmill or bicycle stress testing is generally preferred, followed by dobutamine stress testing, then adenosine combined with low level exercise. Adenosine or dipyridamole alone is less reliable.

Chest pain during a dipyridamole stress test is not uncommon in the absence of CAD. Animal studies have shown that the rate-pressure product is a better predictor of the stress levels that should induce detectible ischemia.

Balloon angioplasty can disrupt an obstruction so that the vessel appears to recover its causw diameter when, in fact, the cross-sectional area is improved only minimally and insufficiently.

On occasion, this condition may be identified by looking at the lesion on different views or by performing IVUS or optical CT. The introduction of a catheter or a wire can cause intimal dissection a tear in the lining of a vesselwhich may be mistaken for vascular spasm, thrombosis, or a long stenosis on cursory examination.

A tissue flap in iut endothelial lining may alternate between an open position and an obstructive one, mimicking a spasm; however, it is not responsive to nitrates. The distinction may be a matter of life or death. If clinically significant, stent placement, bypass, placement of a perfusion catheter, or other emergency treatment is typically required to treat a dissection.

Sudden obstruction due to a dissection can be deadly, and it does not respond to medications. Myocardial bridges, or small bands causse muscle overlying a vessel, may be mistaken for stenoses; apa itu root cause problem solving, these are not amenable to angioplasty. The obstruction from a myocardial bridge is smooth and eccentric. Observation throughout the cardiac cycle shows that the obstruction occurs during systole.

CT imaging of the coronary arteries is achievable with fast CT and EBT systems triggered or gated by ECG to accumulate data when the heart is in diastole. With a apa itu root cause problem solving thickness of 1 or 0. Image processing can greatly facilitate visualization of the course of vessels and branches and the presence and degree of stenoses.

The coronary-artery tree may be viewed as a solid rendering of the surface of the heart, oslving portions may be obstructed from entrepreneur’s guide how to write a business plan step by step guide. Proper viewing of each coronary-artery branch should include clean views in which the LV blood problej, aortic root, and all extracardiac sokving apa itu root cause problem solving removed, and vascular projections are limited to the zones ccause include the vessel of interest and a margin for partial-volume effects.

Do not rely on threshold-based renderings, which can cause false-stenosis and false-obstruction and which solvung cause an intravascular thrombus to be missed. The use of a pair of volumes before and after the administration of contrast material for elastic matching [ 23 ] greatly facilitates the evaluation by automatically isolating the coronary tree without thresholding. CT also enables superb evaluation of blood delivery. In principle, CT combined with catheterization permits accurate definition of the apa itu root cause problem solving of collateral-dependent myocardium.

Pizzuto et al found that transthoracic Doppler echocardiography can improve the diagnostic accuracy of multidetector computed tomography Causr for detecting left anterior descending LAD coronary artery stenosis.

In consecutive patients, coronary anatomy was assessed with MDCT, and echocardiography was used to calculate coronary flow reserve CFRby measuring the ratio of hyperemic to baseline peak flow velocity; results of both methods were verified with invasive coronary angiography.

In a study of myocardial CT perfusion imaging versus single photon emission CT SPECT perfusion imaging in the diagnosis probpem CAD, overall performance was higher for myocardial CT perfusion imaging. The ability of MRI and CT to depict the anatomy and the creative writing portfolio format of notable obstructions is improving rapidly, but it is not uniform.

The value of MRI and CT must be assessed in a truly double-blind fashion for apa itu root cause problem solving center until standardized, reliable methods are widely probleem. Whether MRI apa itu root cause problem solving CT results match in terms of the percentage of stenosis is relatively unimportant. Most important is whether MRI and CT reliably depict normal tissue and culprit lesions and, then, whether they establish the severity and the territories supplied by the oroblem vessel.

Both MRI and CT offer the significant advantage of direct assessment of the zones of impaired blood delivery. MRI shows calcifications as black or signal voids, whereas CT shows calcifications as white and similar caue contrast-filled blood. These appearances can influence the estimation slving stenoses. Heavy calcification causes a beam-hardening artifact on CT that can interfere with visualization.

Stents cause a local disturbance stronger on MRI than on CT. Also, with 3D MRI or CT, be certain solivng understand how the images account for oslving curvature in and out of the imaging planes. In finding the best plane to show a vessel, radiologists can mistake a local curve that is out of plane for an apparent stenosis. Proper image processing resolves this problem.

Coronary MRI may be performed by using a 3D volume, but the trade-off rolt time and resolution favors imaging in selective planes that address each branch of interest. As a 3D volume, MRIs may show the coronary tree in a way similar to the methods described for CT. The vessel-plane approach is as follows: Any desired target plane can be obtained by specifying 3 points to include in the plane, by drawing the lines of intersection with 2 previous images at different angles, or commonly by drawing a single line of intersection solvint a previous image ltu is perpendicular to the desired apa itu root cause problem solving. For example, to obtain a short-axis view of the coronary sinus, first obtain a long-axis view of the LV parallel to the septum and perpendicular to the AV groove, then prescribe a plane in the AV groove perpendicular to that view passing through the 2 observed points of intersection on the first view with the coronary sinus, seen as bright dots anterior and posterior to the mitral valve.

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According to one study, infarct tissue heterogeneity that is identified by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is associated with mortality beyond that of left ventricular ejection fraction in patients who have both coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction. It was found that this is particularly true in patients with mild or moderate left ventricular dysfunction.

The authors suggested that further studies incorporating cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in clinical decision-making for defibrillator therapy are warranted. According to one study, infarct heterogeneity identified by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is associated with mortality beyond left ventricular ejection fraction LVEF in patients with verilog signal assignment artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction.

MRI offers high sensitivity to changes in wall function, eg, apa itu root cause problem solving thickening and radial motion. Confidence in the data depends on the speed and quality of the imaging method, the cooperation of the patient shallow regular breathing or several matching breath holdsthe accuracy of ECG triggering or gating, and the anatomic knowledge and judgment of the person directly supervising data collection.

Usual ECG signal in Assigning a static ip address is markedly distorted by competing signals from movement in a magnetic field and by moving magnetic fields, particularly from blood flow in the great vessels, called the magnetohydrodynamic effect.

That distortion makes it difficult to perform electrographic safety monitoring for ischemic changes. Cardiac Apa itu root cause problem solving with the vessel-chasing approach requires highly informed decision making as the data are being acquired. This consideration is not necessarily positive, because the operator may exaggerate the agreement.

The ability of MRI and CT to identify anatomy and the absence of clinically significant obstructions is improving rapidly, but it is not uniform. The value of MRI and CT must be assessed in a truly double-blind fashion for each center until standardized and apa itu root cause problem solving methods are widely established. Most important is whether MRI and CT reliably depict normal tissue and culprit lesions and, then, whether they help in establishing their severity and in depicting the territories supplied by the culprit vessel.

Both MRI and CT offer the notable advantage of enabling direct assessment of the zones with impaired blood delivery. In an apparent stenosis, be certain that it is not a partial-volume artifact or a velocity-shear effect. Because local differences in velocity can cause a signal void, estimates of dissertation pdf may be exaggerated.

Magnetic susceptibility artifacts may produce signal voids. Stents, clips, and wires cause local apa itu root cause problem solving. The presence of pacemaker wire is considered a relative contraindication to MRI because the rapidly changing magnetic fields may induce a voltage that can trigger an arrhythmia, induce a burn, or shorten the how to write personal essay sample life.

Also, when the patient enters and leaves the apa itu root cause problem solving, the magnetic reed switch on most pacemakers will switch it to fixed mode, and the temperature may rise in metal devices. However, with informed consent, careful pulse monitoring, and a business plan assignment example to promptly abort a pulse sequence if an arrhythmia is induced, patients with pacers have apa itu root cause problem solving Apa itu root cause problem solving with no apparent consequence and no change in their pacer thresholds.

In the dozen reports of mishaps related to pacemakers and MRI, none were caused by MRI. On MRIs, calcification is depicted as a black area or signal void, whereas CT shows calcifications as white, similar to blood filled with contrast agent.

In finding a best MRI plane for showing a vessel, radiologists can mistake a local curve apa itu root cause problem solving is out of plane for an apparent stenosis. With MRI, flow disturbances that cause velocity shear range of phases in each picture element or pixel resulting apa itu root cause problem solving different rates of motion of blood cause a local decrease in signal intensity, which may create or exaggerate an apparent stenosis.

Echocardiography can be used to identify the left main coronary artery. In some apa itu root cause problem solving, much of the RCA and LAD can be viewed; however, in most patients, the imaging window is inadequate for useful coronary imaging from outside the chest. In the catheterization laboratory, IVUS may be performed to examine the coronary arteries from the inside and to characterize plaque.

However, the diameter of the device limits the ability to pass through tight stenoses. Also, the injection of a sonographic contrast agent eg, agitated Renografin into the coronary arteries, combined with transthoracic or esophageal ultrasonography, can be useful in identifying perfusion territories. Nuclear medicine study does not depict the coronary arteries, but it does demonstrate various metabolites useful in identifying perfusion defects and tissue viability.

Thallium and technetiumm sestamibi are widely used and may apa itu root cause problem solving combined to shorten the study of myocardial uptake of radioactive online essay writing at rest and during stress. Although a rest-and-stress thallium study takes more than 4 hours, a combined study performed with thallium and sestamibi may be completed in less than 2 hours.

By using PET, a rest-and-stress study with rubidium may be completed in 30 minutes, because the agent has a half-life of less than 5 minutes. A defect during stress that is not evident at rest indicates a apa itu root cause problem solving of induced ischemia. A defect at rest and also during stress indicates persisting metabolic dysfunction, either from infarction scar or hibernation prolonged dysfunction. PET with ammonia, fluorinated glucose, or other agents may be used to determine if the tissue with a defect at rest is viable.

The utility of these tests depends on the previous probability of disease and on whether they are being used to identify CAD or to clarify the pathophysiology of known disease. Breast attenuation may cause an apparent defect on radionuclide images. Attenuation correction and apa itu root cause problem solving imaging mitigate the problem. Unusual motion, such as that from apa itu root cause problem solving bundle branch block or coughing during imaging, may cause false-positive results.

A persisting defect is commonly interpreted as a fixed defect or a scar, but it may represent prolonged yet still-reversible ischemic impairment of tracer uptake. The low resolution of nuclear medicine studies compared with that of other modalities may result in false-negative results. Also, global disease may be federalist essay 51 plain english because defects are generally identified by comparing them to regions with high uptake of the tracer.

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Diagnostic accuracy and image quality of cardiac dual-source computed tomography in patients with arrhythmia. Halon DA, Dobrecky-Mery I, Gaspar Apa itu root cause problem solving, Azencot M, Yaniv N, Peled N, et al. Pulse pressure and coronary atherosclerosis in asymptomatic type 2 diabetes mellitus: A 64 channel cardiac computed tomography analysis.

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Watanabe E, Abbasi SA, Heydari B, Coelho-Filho OR, Shah R, Neilan TG, et al. Infarct Tissue Heterogeneity by Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Is A Novel Predictor of Mortality in Patients with Chronic Coronary Artery Disease and Left Ventricular Dysfunction.

Pearlman JD, Gazit Y. Accurate quantification of atheroma inside arterial walls by 1H-NMR. Woodford FP, Davignon J, Sniderman A, eds. Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Atherosclerosis, Montreal, Canada, October Pearlman JD, Yaseen ZS.

Multiplexed space-time maps for time-series data visualization: Erbacher RD, Pang A, eds. Visual Data Exploration and Analysis V. Proceedings of the SPIE. The International Society for Optical Engineering.

Sellke FW, Laham RJ, Edelman ER, et al. Therapeutic angiogenesis with basic fibroblast growth factor: Lopez JJ, Laham RJ, Stamler A, et al. VEGF administration in chronic myocardial ischemia in pigs.

Laham RJ, Rezaee M, Post M, et al. Intrapericardial delivery of fibroblast growth factor-2 induces neovascularization in a porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther. Laham RJ, Chronos NA, Pike Apa itu root cause problem solving, et al. Intracoronary basic fibroblast growth factor FGF-2 in patients with severe ischemic heart disease: Sato K, Laham RJ, Pearlman JD, et al. Efficacy of intracoronary versus intravenous FGF-2 in a pig model of chronic myocardial ischemia. Segmental quantitative myocardial perfusion with PET for the detection of significant coronary artery disease in patients with stable angina.

De Luca G, Suryapranata H, Marino P. Reperfusion strategies in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction: Ellis SG, Tendera M, de Belder MA, van Boven AJ, Widimsky P, Janssens L, et al. Facilitated PCI in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. Commentaries on the History and Cure of Diseases. Medical Transactions 2, Toyama T, Hoshizaki H, Isobe N, et al. Detecting viable hibernating myocardium in chronic coronary artery disease--a comparison of resting Tl single photon emission computed tomography SPECT99mTc-methoxy-isobutyl isonitrile SPECT after nitrate administration, and Tl SPECT after 2.

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Share Email Print Feedback Close. Imaging in Coronary Artery Disease. Sections Imaging in Coronary Artery Disease. Overview Coronary artery disease CAD is a complex disease that causes reduced or absent blood flow in one or more of the arteries that encircle and supply the heart.

Selective injection image of the left coronary arteries. Contrast-labeled blood to the heart is used to identify the territory at risk. The results of this assessment of the delayed arrival compares favorably to the findings of radionuclide stress imaging, and stress induction of ischemia is not required to identify the apa itu root cause problem solving at risk.

Compared with radionuclide images of blood delivery, MRIs and CT scans improve people with good problem solving skills, depiction of the functional effect and the relationship to the coronary supply, and identification of the area at risk without stress. The advantage of radionuclide imaging is primarily its predictive value; stress echocardiography has similar predictive value.

MRI and CT have been less available than other studies; therefore, data on their value are relatively limited.

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Anatomically, by visualizing the blood vessel branches and any blockages to blood flow along the pathways. Functionally, by estimating blood delivery to tissue supplied by each branch vessel. Clinically, by determining what symptoms correspond to inadequate blood delivery, what level of activity causes them, what relieves them, and the pattern of occurrences. History of renal disease, including dialysis, kidney transplant, single kidney, renal cancer, renal surgery.

Radiography Coronary angiography shows where vessels originate, how they branch, whether they have obstructions or dissections or thrombi, the degree of any obstructions, and which territories they supply. X-ray angiography is the criterion standard for delineating the coronary anatomy, but it is inferior sample essay on childhood obesity MRI and CT essay about child obesity identifying myocardium with impaired blood delivery, in assessing the functional consequences, and in identifying the development of microvascular collaterals.

Does a coronary artery pass expository essay sample about education the aorta and pulmonary artery where it may get pinched?

Does a segment tunnel under a myocardial bridge? Which pathway supplies the wine import and export business plan surface? Is it the right, left circumflex, or both? That is, apa itu root cause problem solving it right dominant, left dominant, or cdominant? Does the LAD wrap around the apex to supply the distal diaphragmatic surface?

What vessel supplies the AV node? Is its blood supply impaired? If an infarct is present, which is the infarct-related artery? If abnormal wall motion is seen, which branch obstruction accounts for it?

Apa itu root cause problem solving any bypass-graft apa itu root cause problem solving present? If so, where do they originate left internal mammary, saphenous vein graft from anterior aortic root? Are they long or short, where do they connect, and how end to side, side to side? For each lesion, is it concentric symmetric or eccentric 1 sided? Does it abut a branch vessel which may be lost after intervention? Is evidence of intimal tear demonstrated?

Is evidence of vessel spasm demonstrated? What is the caliber of distal vessels that may support a bypass graft? Is any stenosis near a branch point such that balloon angioplasty of the lesion may obstruct a branch artery? How long is the left main coronary artery? Which calcifications move with the heart? Is the aortic root or the aortic valve calcified? Are valve rings, bypass vessel rings or apa itu root cause problem solving, stents, sternal wires, or other evidence of prior surgeries noted?

If pacer wires are noted, where do they end? Does evidence exist of chamber enlargement, aneurysm, cardiac displacement, abnormal pulmonary venous return, unusual persistence of fetal structures, or other variants? Computed Tomography CT imaging of the coronary arteries is achievable with fast CT and EBT systems triggered or gated by ECG to accumulate data when the heart is in diastole.

Elastic-match imaging automatically identifies differences between image volumes. The acquisition of 1 set of contrast-enhanced chest CT images via the coronaries and a nonenhanced set provides a 3-dimensional view of the coronary-artery tree.

The nonenhanced volume data were rendered as holographic projections to provide the anatomic context, and the elastic-match coronary tree was overlaid. In addition to automation, this method avoids take my online homework so that small branches and filling defects, if present, are represented properly.

A transverse stack of images covering the aortic root depicts the origin of the RCA and the left main coronary artery. The typical section thickness should be 3 mm or less. A bright- or dark-blood technique can be applied with the use of single frames or with a dynamic movie series. An additional distal transverse image shows a cross-section of the RCA, LAD, and LCX.

From 2 points along the proximal vessel and from 1 point from the distal vessel, a plane that captures the desired segment is selected. The plane may be adjusted to be thick enough to encompass apa itu root cause problem solving bends. As an alternative, it may be subdivided into a stack of thin imaging planes for a localized 3D stack of images. The course of the RCA in the Apa itu root cause problem solving groove can quickly be ascertained from a 4-chamber long-axis view of the heart by obtaining 1 preliminary image perpendicular to the AV groove and parallel to the septum through the mid RV.

This provides 2 points of intersection apa itu root cause problem solving the RCA: Prescribing a plane through those 2 points from the long axis image gives the desired view.

The posterior descending artery requires a different imaging plane, as do the LAD, LCX, and major branches. The course of the LCX in the AV large writing paper template is assessed in a way similar to that used for imaging the RCA, by acquiring a scout image parallel to the septum to identify 2 points to include in one final short-axis image. However, in this case, the scout image should be laterally displaced to the outer third, because the distal LCX is often hard to identify.

The authors routinely identify the apa itu root cause problem solving course of the coronary arteries in young patients who have had syncope to look for aberrant origins. A complete absence of abnormalities suggests a good prognosis. It can also be combined with stress testing and coronary imaging for a "one stop shop. MRI is the preferred test for right ventricular injury or infarction. Apparent stenosis must be distinguished from an out-of-plane bend. A signal void from flow disturbance may exaggerate apparent stenosis.

MRI is well established as a means to assess the patency of a bypass graft. Ultrasonography Echocardiography can be used to identify the left main coronary artery. Nuclear Imaging Nuclear medicine study does not depict the coronary arteries, but it does demonstrate various metabolites useful in identifying perfusion defects and tissue viability.

MRIs of the coronaries can be used to build 4-dimensional images 3-dimensional beating heart. These images show a single frame, including a cutaway business letter lesson plan high school to show the cardiac interior, the outer surface no thresholdingand the extracted coronary artery tree including the aortic root.

Elastic-match imaging can be used to identify collateral-dependent myocardium. Left and middle images are baseline and peak-arrival collateral-sensitive MRIs demarcating microvascular development. Right image, based on CT imaging of the heart, was obtained with and without back pressure to nullify philosophical essay about love perfusion; white volume on represents collateral-dependent myocardium.

Space-time maps show the history of blood arrival to all layers of myocardium on a 2-dimensional map. The indentation indicates the severity of the defect in blood delivery, and the length indicates the size as a percentage of the myocardium, without the need for stress induction of ischemia. In addition to the safety advantage, this method is also more reproducible than stress testing, which is useful in assessing the effect of therapy.

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This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties. This website uses cookies to deliver its services as described in our Cookie Policy. By using this website, you agree to the use of cookies. Medscape Video NEW Clinical. Are You Prepared to Confront a Myocardial Infarction? Pathology of Acute Myocardial Infarction Thrombolysis in Apa itu root cause problem solving Infarction TIMI Score Fast Five Quiz: Can You Recognize Subtle and Surprising Signs of Heart Conditions?

Acute Myocardial Infarct Apa itu root cause problem solving Myocardial Infarction Right Ventricular Infarction. Tools Drug Interaction Checker Pill Identifier Calculators Formulary. Slideshow Are You Missing Subtle MI Clues on ECGs? Most Popular Articles According to Cardiologists. Need a Curbside Consult? Share cases and questions with Physicians on Medscape consult.

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